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Echinacea - Euphrosyne

(Daisy or Sunflower family)


Echinacea Moench

Three species are found in eastern North America. The root of E. purpurea Moench is used in herbal remedies for the treatment of minor skin ailments.

Underwood & Gaul (1948) observed four patients who reacted positively to patch tests with Echinacea, presumably E. purpurea. They had previously suffered plant dermatitis.

Echinops L.

About 100 species occur in eastern Europe, Asia, and Africa.

The occurrence of α-terthienyl, a phototoxic thiophene (see Tagetes L. below), has been reported from the following species (Bohlmann et al. 1973, Gommers & Voor in't Holt 1976):

Echinops bannaticus Rochel
Echinops chantavicus Trautv.
Echinops commutatus Juratzka
Echinops cornigerus DC.
Echinops dahuricus Fisch.
Echinops exaltatus Schrad.
Echinops horridus Desf.
Echinops humilis M.Bieb.
Echinops niveus Wall.
Echinops persicus Steven
Echinops ritro L.
Echinops sphaerocephalus L.
Echinops strigosus L.
Echinops viscosus DC. 

Eclipta alba Hassk.
[syn. Eclipta erecta L.]


Eclipta prostrata L.

Extracts of the plants had phototoxic activity against three test micro-organisms (Wat et al. 1980b). The leaves of E. prostrata contain α-terthienyl (Gommers & Voor in't Holt 1976) which is phototoxic to human skin (see Tagetes L.).

Elephantopus mollis Kunth

The hairs on the stem are irritating to the skin (von Reis Altschul 1973).

Potentially allergenic sesquiterpene lactones have been reported from this species.

Encelia californica Nutt.

[Information available but not yet included in database]

Ericameria bloomeri J.F.Macbr.
[syns Chrysothamnus bloomeri Greene, Haplopappus bloomeri A.Gray]
Bloomer's Goldenbush, Rabbitbrush, Rabbitbrush Goldenweed

[Information available but not yet included in database]

Ericameria nauseosa G.L.Nesom & G.I.Baird
[syns Chondrophora nauseosa Britton, Chrysocoma nauseosa Pallas ex Pursh]
Rabbitbrush, Rubber Rabbitbrush

[Information available but not yet included in database]

Erigeron maximus Otto

Biting ants have been found inhabiting hollow stems of this American species (Wheeler 1942).

Erigeron philadelphicus L.

In an investigation of "weed dermatitis", one of 50 patients showed a positive patch test reaction to an extract of this plant (Shelmire 1939a).

Erlangea moramballae S.Moore
[syn. Vernonia moramballae Oliver & Hiern]

The seed is said to cause inflammation of the eye (Watt & Breyer-Brandwijk 1962).

Ethulia conyzoides L.

In tropical Africa and Madagascar, the plant has been used as a counter irritant (Watt & Breyer-Brandwijk 1962).

Eupatoriadelphus R.King & H.Robinson

This recently described genus comprises four species previously included in Eupatorium L.

Eupatoriadelphus purpureus R.King & H.Robinson
[syn. Eupatorium purpureum L.]
Gravel Root

A potentially allergenic costunolide derivative has been reported from this species.

Wat et al. (1980b) found that an extract of this species was only weakly active against one of three test micro-organisms when tested for phototoxicity.

Eupatorium altissimum L.

Recurrent seasonal dermatitis of the face and neck with a positive patch test reaction to an ether extract of the flowers was reported by Brier (1940).

Eupatorium cannabinum L.
Hemp Agrimony

Hausen & Osmundsen (1983) observed a weakly positive patch test reaction to an extract of this species in a 63 year old hobby gardener who was sensitised to feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium Sch.Bip.).

Potentially allergenic sesquiterpene lactones have been reported from this species.

Eupatorium capillifolium Small
[syn. Eupatorium foeniculaceum Willd.]
Dog Fennel

A female developed an itching rash on the neck an upper chest several hours after gathering up and packing the dried flowers; the rash persisted for several days (Morton 1975).

Eupatorium fortunei Turcz.
[syn. Eupatorium japonicum Thunb.]

Wat et al. (1980b) tested an extract of this species for phototoxicity against three test micro-organisms. Activity against the two fungal micro-organisms was observed, suggesting the presence of polyacetylenes.

Eupatorium rugosum Kunth
White Snake Root

Ingestion of dairy products, particularly milk, derived from livestock that has grazed on the plant can result in human poisoning (Lewis & Elvin-Lewis 1977).

Eupatorium serotinum Michx.

In an investigation of "weed dermatitis", three of 50 patients showed positive patch test reactions to an extract of this plant (Shelmire 1939a). Shelmire (1940) subsequently stated that the plant was an infrequent sensistiser.

Euphrosyne acerosa (Nutt.) Panero
[syns Iva acerosa (Nutt.) R.C.Jacks.Oxytenia acerosa Nutt.]

A plant chemist developed dermatitis from Oxytenia acerosa. Patch tests to the plant and to an alcoholic extract were positive, negative to an ether extract (Schwartz & Warren 1940).

Coronopilin, a potentially contact allergenic sesquiterpene lactone, has been reported from Iva acerosa (Farkas et al. 1966, Fischer et al. 1979).

Richard J. Schmidt

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