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   Index



 

CRUCIFERAE

(Cabbage or Mustard family)

 

This is a large family of 3200 species in 375 genera. It is also known as the Brassicaceae. The plants are found chiefly in northern temperate regions, and especially in the Mediterranean area, but are of cosmopolitan distribution.

The family provides a number of important food plants (Crute et al. 1980), including:

Brassica alboglabra Bailey — provides Chinese kale
Brassica campestris L. var chinensis Makino — provides Chinese cabbage or pak-choi
Brassica campestris L. var rapifera Metz — provides turnip, winter oil seed turnip rape, and summer oil seed turnip rape
Brassica napus L. — provides swede, rutabaga, fodder rape, hungry gap kale, winter oil seed, swede rape, summer oil seed swede rape, and Siberian kale
Brassica oleracea L. var acephala DC. — provides thousand head kale and marrowstem kale
Brassica oleracea L. var botrytis L. — provides cauliflower or heading broccoli
Brassica oleracea L. var capitata Alef. — provides cabbage (including Shetland, red, and savoy)
Brassica oleracea L. var fimbriata Mill. — provides curly kale, borecole, and Scotch kale
Brassica oleracea L. var gemmifera Zenker — provides Brussels sprouts
Brassica oleracea L. var gongylodes L. — provides kohl rabi
Brassica oleracea L. var italica Plenck — provides sprouting broccoli, calabrese, cape broccoli, purple cauliflower, and nine-star perennial broccoli
Brassica oleracea L. var tronchuda Bailey — provides tronchuda cabbage or Portugal cabbage
Raphanus sativus L. var radicula Pers. — provides radish 

Wasabi, or Japanese horseradish, is derived from Wasabia japonica Matsum. Wasabia tenuis Matsum. provides the smaller yuri-wasabi (Hodge 1974). The leaves of garlic mustard, also known as sauce alone (Alliaria petiolata Cavara & Grande), have been used to prepare a sauce to accompany salted fish (Blackmore 1982). White mustard (Sinapis alba L.), or more usually rape (Brassica napus), and cress (Lepidium sativum L.) seeds are germinated for use as salad plants. Water cress (Nasturtium officinale R. Br.) and American, land or winter cress (Barbarea verna Asch.) are also cultivated for use as salad plants. The powdered seeds of white mustard (Sinapis alba) and brown mustard (Brassica juncea Coss.) are used in the manufacture of the condiment mustard; Brassica nigra Koch, although once commonly used for this purpose, has been more or less completely replaced by Brassica juncea because of its unsuitability for mechanical harvesting (Crisp 1976). The grated roots of horseradish (Armoracia rusticana Gaertner, Meyer & Scherb.) are also used in the preparation of a condiment.

A few varieties, particularly of cabbage, are sufficiently ornamental to warrant being grown for decorative purposes in the flower bed. Most commonly grown for their flowers are the wallflowers (Cheiranthus cheiri L.), stocks (Matthiola R. Br.), candytuft (Iberis sempervirens L.), Alyssum L. and Lobularia Desv., and Aubrieta Adans. species and cultivars. Honesty (Lunaria annua L.) is grown for use in dried flower arrangements.

The leaves of Isatis tinctoria L. were ground to a paste and fermented to provide woad, a dye used by the Ancient Britons.

Members of this family, like those of the Cleomaceae, Capparaceae, and others, characteristically yield isothiocyanates when damaged. These isothiocyanates, otherwise known as mustard oils, are derived from compounds known as glucosinolates by the action of myrosinase, an enzyme. Isothiocyanates have irritant effects on the skin and can also be allergenic (Mitchell & Jordan 1974). Using Raphanus sativus L. as an example, Pereira (1835) noted that members of the Cruciferae "contain a volatile acrid principle, which renders them stimulant", and recognised that the volatile oil from mustard seed was not present as such in the plant material, but was formed by the action of water when the seed was crushed. Hedge et al. (1980) remarked that there was no known taxon belonging to the family Cruciferae that was devoid of glucosinolates. However, a few species are known that do not produce mustard oils from their glucosinolates; others release only trace quantities of mustard oils; others release mustard oils that spontaneously cyclise to form oxazolidinethiones (Cole 1976) which are goitrogenic but probably not allergenic. Thus, not all members of this family are necessarily dermatological hazards. Certain Brassica L., Sinapis L., and Eruca Mill. species have been suspected of evoking Oppenheim's meadow dermatitis, but a combination of irritation from the plants and sunburn was probably responsible. Generally, members of this family appear to be able to accumulate nickel from soils rich in this element (Sasse 1979). Specifically, certain members of the genera Alyssum L., Bornmuellera Hausskn., Peltaria Jacq., and Streptanthus Nutt. may be regarded as locally important in this respect.


Alliaria petiolata Cavara & Grande
(syns Erysimum alliaria L., Sisymbrium alliaria Scop., Arabis petiolata Bieb., Alliaria officinalis Andrz.)
Garlic Mustard, Sauce Alone

Application of this plant to the skin produces vesication (Gravmuller 1813-1819). Sinigrin and glucotropaeolin have been reported to be the principal glucosinolates of Alliaria officinalis (Kjaer 1960). Allyl and benzyl isothiocyanates are produced as autolysis products of the glucosinolates (Cole 1976).



Alyssoides sinuata Medikus
(syns Vesicaria sinuata Poiret, Alyssum sinuatum L.)

 

Alyssoides utriculata Medikus
(syn. Vesicaria utriculata Lam.)

Glucoerucin, a methyl-thio-alkyl glucosinolate, has been reported from these species (Kjaer 1960).



Alyssum L.

The genus comprises some 170 species, of which 60 are found in Europe. The greatest proliferation of species is in the eastern Mediterranean and Turkey.

Of the six sections into which the genus has been classified, only the section Odontarrhena features the ability to hyperaccumulate nickel from nickel-rich substrates. Indeed, a large proportion of the section is ecologically endemic and restricted to serpentinitic and other ultrabasic substrates (Brooks et al. 1979). The species have in the past been classified in a separate genus - Odontarrhena C. Meyer.

Brooks et al. (1979) investigated all but one of the recognised species of Alyssum; the following species have been found to be hyperaccumulators of nickel:

Alyssum akamasicum B.L. Burtt
Alyssum alpestre L.
Alyssum anatolicum Hausskn.
Alyssum argenteum All.
Alyssum bertholonii Desv.
Alyssum callichroum Boiss. & Buhse
Alyssum caricum T. Dudley & Huber-Mor.
Alyssum cassium Boiss. & Heldr.
Alyssum chondrogynum B.L. Burtt
Alyssum cilicicum Boiss. & Bal.
Alyssum condensatum Boiss. & Hausskn.
Alyssum constellatum Boiss.
Alyssum pintodasilvae T. Dudley
Alyssum corsicum Duby
Alyssum crenulatum Boiss. & Heldr.
Alyssum cypricum Nyár.
Alyssum davisianum T. Dudley
Alyssum discolor T. Dudley & Huber-Mor.
Alyssum dubertretii Gomb.
Alyssum eriophyllum Boiss. & Hausskn.
Alyssum euboeum Hal.
Alyssum fallacinum Hausskn.
Alyssum floribundum Boiss. & Bal.
Alyssum giosnanum Nyár.
Alyssum heldreichii Hausskn.
Alyssum huber-morathii T. Dudley
Alyssum janchenii Nyár.
Alyssum lesbiacum Rech. f.
Alyssum markgrafii O. Schulz
Alyssum masmenaeum Boiss.
Alyssum murale Waldst. & Kit.
Alyssum obovatum Turcz.
Alyssum oxycarpum Boiss. & Bal.
Alyssum penjwinensis T. Dudley
Alyssum pinifolium T. Dudley
Alyssum pterocarpum T. Dudley
Alyssum robertianum Bernard
Alyssum samariferum Boiss. & Hausskn.
Alyssum singarense Boiss. & Hausskn.
Alyssum smolikanum Nyár.
Alyssum syriacum Nyár.
Alyssum tenium Hal.
Alyssum trapeziforme Bornm.
Alyssum troodii Boiss.
Alyssum virgatum Nyár. 

The dermatological properties of nickel and its salts are well documented (Malten et al. 1976, Cronin 1980).

Several species have been investigated for their thioglucoside content. Principally methyl-thio-alkyl and alkenyl glucosinolates have been found in the following species (Kjaer 1960, Hasapis et al. 1981):

Alyssum argenteum All.
Alyssum bornmuelleri Hausskn.
Alyssum borzaeanum Nyár.
Alyssum chondrogynum B.L. Burtt
Alyssum corymbosum Boiss.
Alyssum montanum L.
Alyssum orientale Ard.
Alyssum ovirense A. Kerner
Alyssum saxatile L.
Alyssum saxatile L. var citrinum
Alyssum troodii Boiss. 

Cole (1976) found that A. saxatile released moderate quantities of a variety of alkenyl and methyl-thio-alkyl mustard oils on autolysis of its glucosinolates.



Arabidopsis thaliana Heynh.
(syns Arabis thaliana L., Sisymbrium thalianum Gay)
Thale Cress

Cole (1976) found that isopropyl isothiocyanate was the principal mustard oil released from this species on autolysis of its glucosinolates.



Arabis L.

Several species have been investigated for their thioglucoside content. Principally methyl-thio-alkyl glucosinolates have been found (Kjaer 1960, Hasapis et al. 1981):

Arabis alpina L.
Arabis hirsuta Scop.
Arabis kennedyae Meikle
Arabis purpurea Sibth. & Smith 

Cole (1976) found that only very small quantities of mustard oil where produced by A. alpina, A. caucasica Willd., A. hirsuta, and A. turrita L. on autolysis of their glucosinolates.



Arabis glabra Bernh.
(syn. Turritis glabra L.)

Autolysis of the glucosinolates of this species resulted in the release of allyl isothiocyanate and some methyl-thio-alkyl isothiocyanates (Cole 1976).



Arabis puberula Nutt.

The crushed plant is used like a mustard plaster (see Brassica nigra Koch) by Nevada Indians (Train et al. 1957).



Armoracia rusticana Gaertner, Meyer & Scherb.
(syns Nasturtium armoracia Fries, Cochlearia armoracia L., Armoracia lapathifolia Gilib.)
Horseradish, Red Cole

The roots in particular, which are grated and used to prepare a condiment, are well known as being irritant and lachrymatory. The principal thioglucosides from which the irritant mustard oils are formed are sinigrin and gluconasturtiin (Kjaer 1960). Capillary gas chromatography has facilitated the identification of about 30 mustard oils from horseradish, most of them occurring in trace amounts (Grob & Matile 1980).



Aubrieta Adans.
(syn. Aubrietia DC.)

The principal thioglucosides of the following species have been found to be the aromatic glucosinolates sinalbin and glucoaubrietin (Kjaer 1960):

Aubrieta columnae Guss.
Aubrieta deltoidea DC.
Aubrieta erubescens Griseb.
Aubrieta hybrida hort.
Aubrieta intermedia Heldr. & Orph. 

Cole (1976) found that on autolysis of the glucosinolates in A. deltoidea, the principal mustard oil released was but-3-enyl isothiocyanate, but only in very small quantities.



Barbarea R. Br.

The principal thioglucosides of the following species have been found to be the aromatic glucosinolates gluconasturtiin and glucobarbarin (Kjaer 1960):

Barbarea intermedia Bor.
Barbarea stricta Andrz.
Barbarea verna Asch.
(syn. Barbarea praecox R. Br.)
Barbarea vulgaris R. Br.
(syn. Barbarea arcuata Reichb.) 

Cole (1976) found that on autolysis of the glucosinolates in B. intermedia and B. stricta, small amounts of principally isopropyl, allyl, and 2-phenylethyl isothiocyanates were released. B. vulgaris behaved similarly but did not release isopropyl isothiocyanate.



Berteroa incana DC.
(syn. Alyssum incanum L.)

The seeds of this species contain methyl-thio-alkyl glucosinolates (Kjaer 1960). Cole (1976) found that autolysis of the glucosinolates present in the plant resulted in the release principally of benzyl isothiocyanate.



Bornmuellera Hausskn.

Reeves et al. (1980) reported that four taxa from this genus, including B. baldaccii Heyw. and B. tymphaea Hausskn. found in the Balkan Peninsula and Turkey, were capable of hyperaccumulating nickel. The dermatological properties of nickel and its salts are well documented (Malten et al. 1976, Cronin 1980).



Brassica L.

This genus is native to Europe, the Mediterranean region, and Asia. Many species, or more usually, varieties and cultivars are commonly grown for food use (Nieuwhof 1969, Crute et al. 1980).

Brassica species have been suspected of evoking photodermatitis (Pathak 1974, Ullmo 1932).



Brassica alboglabra Bailey
Chinese Kale

This taxon may be distinguished from the closely related B. oleracea L. group by the but-3-enyl isothiocyanate released on autolysis of the seed glucosinolates. Some allyl isothiocyanate is also produced (Vaughan et al. 1976).



Brassica barrelieri Janka ssp barrelieri

 

Brassica barrelieri Janka ssp sabularia
(syn. Brassica sabularia Brot.)

 

Brassica barrelieri Janka ssp oxyrrhina P. Ball & Heyw.
(syn. Brassica oxyrrhina Cosson)

One sample of seeds from ssp barrelieri contained 2-hydroxybut-3-enyl glucosinolate as the only thioglucoside; another sample yielded in addition but-3-enyl glucosinolate. Similarly, one sample of seeds from ssp oxyrrhina afforded but-3-enyl glucosinolate whilst another yielded in addition 2-phenylethyl glucosinolate. Seeds from ssp sabularia afforded principally but-3-enyl glucosinolate (Horn & Vaughan 1983).



Brassica campestris L. var chinensis Makino
(syns Brassica chinensis L., Brassica pekinensis Rupr., Brassica cernua Matsum.)
Chinese Cabbage, Petsai, Pakchoi

Chinese cabbages have been found to absorb nickel under experimental conditions (Christensen 1979). Oral ingestion of nickel by nickel sensitive patients can result in a flare at the site of previous dermatitis (Cronin 1980).

Cole (1976) found that autolysis of the glucosinolates present in B. chinensis resulted in the release of isopropyl, 3-methylthioalkyl, and 2-phenylethyl isothiocyanates.



Brassica campestris L. var rapifera Metz
(syns Brassica campestris L. ssp rapifera Sinsk., Brassica rapa L. var rapa Thell.)
Turnip

Shelmire (1940) observed contact dermatitis of the hands in housewives who handled turnip and mustard greens. The juice of the turnip produced a positive patch test reaction in 1 of 53 patients with hand dermatitis suspected to have been caused by vegetables (Sinha et al. 1977).

The seeds are used as a counter-irritant in India (Behl et al. 1966).

Gluconasturtiin, an aromatic glucosinolate, together with gluconapin, glucobrassicanapin (two alkenyl glucosinolates), and progoitrin have been reported from this plant (Kjaer 1960). Cole (1976) reported that B. rapa released only a small amount of mustard oil on autolysis of its glucosinolates, consisting principally of 2-phenylethyl and but-3-enyl isothiocyanates.



Brassica deflexa Boiss. ssp leptocarpa Hedge

The seeds of this species were found to contain principally 3-methylsulfonylpropyl glucosinolate (Horn & Vaughan 1983).



Brassica desnottesii Emb. & Maire

The seeds of this species were found to contain principally 4-hydroxybenzyl glucosinolate, with a smaller quantity of 2-hydroxybut-3-enyl glucosinolate (Horn & Vaughan 1983).



Brassica elongata Ehrh. ssp elongata

 

Brassica elongata Ehrh. ssp integrifolia Breistr.

The seeds of the former taxon have been found to contain 3-methylsulfonylpropyl and 2-hydroxybut-3-enyl glucosinolates; the latter taxon contains in addition a small quantity of 2-phenylethyl glucosinolate (Horn & Vaughan 1983).



Brassica fruticulosa Cirillo

Horn & Vaughan (1983) investigated the glucosinolates of the seeds of five subspecies of B. fruticulosa (ssp fruticulosa, ssp cossoniana Maire, ssp glaberrima Battand., ssp mauritanica Maire, and ssp radicata Pomel). Principally but-3-enyl glucosinolate was found, minor quantities of one or two other glucosinolates occurring in the individual taxa.



Brassica gravinae Ten. var brachyloma O. Schulz
(syn. Brassica brachyloma Boiss.)

The seeds of this species were found to contain 4-hydroxybenzyl, 2-hydroxybut-3-enyl, and but-3-enyl glucosinolates (Horn & Vaughan 1983).



Brassica incana Ten.

But-3-enyl glucosinolate, together with a smaller quantity of 2-phenylethyl glucosinolate, was reported to occur in the seeds of this species (Horn & Vaughan 1983).



Brassica insularis Moris

The seeds of this species were found to contain principally 2-phenylethyl glucosinolate together with some benzyl glucosinolate and 2-hydroxybut-3-enyl glucosinolate (Horn & Vaughan 1983).



Brassica integrifolia O. Schulz
Wild Lettuce

The leaves, seeds, and seed-oil are used as counter-irritants (Quisumbing 1951).



Brassica juncea Coss.
(syns Sinapis juncea L., Brassica juncea Czern.)
Brown Mustard, Indian Mustard, Chinese Mustard

The volatile oil has been used in India as a counter-irritant. The seeds of this species are preferred to those of white mustard (Sinapis alba L.) for external application as a rubefacient (Nadkarni 1976).

Patch tests carried out using the leaves of this species crushed in a small quantity of normal saline elicited a positive reaction in 1 of 3 contact dermatitis patients tested in New Delhi, India (Singh et al. 1978).

Alkenyl and aromatic glucosinolates have been reported from this species (Kjaer 1960). Cole (1976) found that autolysis of the glucosinolates present in this plant caused the release of principally allyl isothiocyanate but also 2-phenylethyl isothiocyanate.



Brassica maurorum Durieu

The seeds of this species contain principally but-3-enyl glucosinolate and 2-hydroxybut-3-enyl glucosinolate (Horn & Vaughan 1983).



Brassica napus L.
Swede, Fodder Rape, Hungry Gap Kale, Colza

Colza oil, otherwise known as rape oil or rapeseed oil, derived from this species and used for polishing gold chains was reported to cause dermatitis (Weber 1937).

Gardner & Bennetts (1956) included this species in a list of plants known or suspected of causing urticaria or skin irritation. Watt & Breyer-Brandwijk (1962) note that a strongly irritant substance is released from the seeds on hydrolysis. Both aromatic and alkenyl glucosinolates have been reported from this species (Kjaer 1960). Cole (1976) reported that only very small quantities of isothiocyanates were released on autolysis of the glucosinolates present in this plant.



Brassica nigra Koch
Black Mustard

Harrison (1906) included mustard in a list of drugs, applied externally or taken internally, which may cause dermatitis — he may or may not have been referring to Brassica nigra. According to Woods (1962), the plant is irritant. Moistened, powdered black mustard seed produces intense rubefaction and ultimately vesication followed by desquamation (Watt & Breyer-Brandwijk 1962, Nadkarni 1976).

The seeds, from which the condiment mustard was formerly prepared (Crisp 1976), yield volatile oil of mustard which is principally allyl isothiocyanate (Wade 1977). This oil was used as a tear gas in World War I (Burkill 1935). Punctate keratitis has been reported in two mustard workers (Bischler 1947).

Vesication by mustard oil is undesirable as this results in intense pain and the lesions heal very slowly (Watt & Breyer-Brandwijk 1962). White (1887) described the effects of a mustard plaster as follows: "In a few minutes after application, the skin begins to feel warm, and by the end of a half-hour, if the patient bears it so long, this sensation has increased to an intolerable burning. Within a few minutes, redness appears, becomes intense, persists for a day or two and often leaves persistent dark brown pigmentation." On that account he warned against its use "upon the upper chest or other parts of a woman which the dress will not always conceal." He noted that oil of mustard was a powerful irritant and caustic and that if the action of the mustard "be continued beyond its legitimate rubefacient effect, a period which varies greatly in persons, it may produce vesication, or even deep suppuration." Lepidium L., Nasturtium R. Br., Sinapis L., Sisymbrium L., and several other members of this family were typical rubefacients (White 1887). Application of a mustard plaster produced a fatal result in a child (Fucci 1928). Bhutani et al. (1970) reported that the application of mustard oil, which was probably impure, to the face produced acneiform lesions.

During the Irish famine, peasants who ate large quantities of the plant developed deep red blotches, resembling burns, on the backs of hands, dorsa of feet, nose, and forehead, which were sometimes followed by ulceration (Popham undated).

Mustard oil was found to elicit a positive patch test reaction in 1 of 3559 eczema patients (Desai et al. 1965).

A vesicular eruption of the hands, which occurred twice, in a baker, was attributed to ground mustard, one of the products handled by this man (Tara 1949). No tests were carried out. A young male patient developed acute giant urticaria with oedema of the glottis whilst eating pizza margherita. Although no mustard nor other cruciferous ingredient is normally used in this pizza, Panconesi et al. (1980) found the patient to be sensitive to intradermal injections of mustard (both black and white) seed extracts, and to extracts of turnip, cabbage, and cauliflower, to which he developed intense whealing followed by shock and glottic oedema. RAST inhibition tests confirmed allergy to black and white mustard seed proteins.

Cole (1976) observed that allyl isothiocyanate together with a small quantity of 2-phenylethyl isothiocyanate was released from the glucosinolates of this plant on autolysis.



Brassica oleracea L.
Wild Cabbage

Although this species may be found growing on sea cliffs in England and Wales, it is more commonly encountered as horticultural varieties of cauliflower, broccoli, and cabbage.

Most varieties of the species release allyl isothiocyanate, and some also but-3-enyl isothiocyanate, on autolysis of the seed glucosinolates (Vaughan et al. 1976).



Brassica oleracea L. var botrytis L.
(syn. Brassica botrytis Mill.)
Cauliflower, Heading Broccoli

Touton (1932) and Vaughan & Black (1954) refer to allergy to this plant; cauliflower has also been implicated as a cause of hand eczema (Agrup 1969).

A plant grower who had eczema of the hands was contact sensitive to cauliflower, tulip (Tulipa L., fam. Liliaceae), tulipalin A, onion (Allium cepa L., fam. Alliaceae), and to the fungicide tetramethylthiuram disulfide. Aqueous and ethanolic extracts of cauliflower, tulip, and onion (10g fresh plant material with 100ml water or ethanol) produced positive patch test reactions in the patient, negative in 10 controls (van Ketel 1975a).



Brassica oleracea L. var capitata Alef.
(syn. Brassica capitata hort.)
Cabbage, Shetland Cabbage, Savoy Cabbage, Red Cabbage

The heated leaf may be appled for the production of a blister and thus relief of oedema (Watt & Breyer-Brandwijk 1962).

Cabbage has been reported to cause occupational contact dermatitis (Leoni & Cogo 1964). Sinha et al. (1977) found that the juice of the cabbage produced positive patch test reactions in 5 from 53 patients with hand dermatitis suspected to have been caused by vegetables. Cornish greens, probably young cabbage, produced contact urticaria with a positive scratch test reaction in an atopic woman (Calnan 1981a).

The aromatic glucosinolate gluconasturtiin has been isolated from this species (Kjaer 1960).



Brassica oxyrrhina Cosson

One sample of seeds of this species contained but-3-enyl glucosinolate, whilst another sample contained but-3-enyl and 2-phenylethyl glucosinolates (Horn & Vaughan 1983).



Brassica repanda DC. ssp maritima Heyw.

The seeds of this species were found to contain 4-hydroxybenzyl glucosinolate (Horn & Vaughan 1983).



Brassica souliei Battand.

The seeds of his species contain principally 2-hydroxybut-3-enyl and 2-phenylethyl glucosinolates (Horn & Vaughan 1983).



Brassica spinescens Pomel

The seeds of this species contain but-3-enyl glucosinolate as the principal thioglucoside, together with a small amount of 2-hydroxybut-3-enyl glucosinolate (Horn & Vaughan 1983).



Brassica tournefortii Gouan
Wild Turnip

The seeds of this species were found to contain 3-methylsulfinylpropyl glucosinolate as the principal thioglucoside (Horn & Vaughan 1983).



Bunias erucago L.

 

Bunias orientalis L.

The glucosinolates of these plants released isopropyl isothiocyanate on autolysis (Cole 1976).



Cakile maritima Scop.
Sea Rocket

Autolysis of the glucosinolates present in this plant results in the release of only very small amounts of mustard oil, the principal product being 1-cyano-4,5-epithiopentane (Cole 1976).



Camelina Crantz

Glucocamelinin, a methyl-thio-alkyl glucosinolate, appears to be the principal thioglucoside to be found in members of this genus. It has been reported from (Kjaer 1960):

Camelina alyssum Thell.
(syn. Camelina dentata Pers.)
Camelina microcarpa Andrz.
Camelina sativa Crantz 


Capsella bursa-pastoris Medikus
Shepherd's Purse

The seeds have rubefacient and vesicant properties (Behl et al. 1966). Allyl isothiocyanate is released from the plant material on autolysis of its glucosinolates (Cole 1976).



Cardamine L.

Various glucosinolates have been reported from the species listed below (see Kjaer 1960), including glucocochlearin (alkyl), gluconapin (alkenyl), and glucotropaeolin (aromatic):

Cardamine amara L.
Cardamine graeca L.
Cardamine pratensis L. 

Cole (1976) reports that Cardamine pratensis releases sec-butyl isothiocyanate on autolysis of its glucosinolates.



Cardamine flexuosa With.
Greater Bitter Cress

 

Cardamine hirsuta L.
Hairy Bitter Cress

Autolysis of the glucosinolates of these plants results in the release of sec-butyl isothiocyanate (Cole 1976).



Cardaria draba Desv.
(syn. Lepidium draba L.)
Hoary Cress

Kjaer (1960) reported the detection of a methyl-thio-alkyl glucosinolate, which he named glucoraphanin, in this species. Hasapis et al. (1981) investigated this plant for mustard oil glycosides and found principally methyl-thio-alkyl glucosinolates. Cole (1976) reported that only a small amount of mustard oil, consisting of allyl and 4-methylthiobutyl isothiocyanates, is released from the plant on autolysis of its glucosinolates.



Cheiranthus cheiri L.
Wallflower

Glucocheirolin, a methyl-thio-alkyl glucosinolate, has been isolated from the seeds of this species (Kjaer 1960). Cole (1976) reported that only a very small amount of mustard oil (4-methylthiobutyl isothiocyanate) is released from the plant on autolysis of its glucosinolates.



Cheiranthus x kewensis hort.
Winter Wallflower

This is a hybrid between Cheiranthus cheiri L. and Cheiranthus mutabilis L'Hér. Two methyl-thio-alkyl glucosinolates have been reported from the plant (Chisholm 1972).



Cochlearia L.
Scurvy Grass

Alkyl and hydroxy-substituted alkyl glucosinolates have been reported from the following members of this genus (Kjaer 1960):

Cochlearia anglica L.
Cochlearia danica L. 

Sec-butyl isothiocyanate is released from the plants on autolysis of the glucosinolates of both species (Cole 1976).



Cochlearia officinalis L.
Common Scurvy Grass, Spoonwort

This maritime European plant was formerly eaten and is a rich source of vitamin C - hence the common name (Blackmore 1982).

The plant has been used as a rubefacient (Burkill 1935). The thioglucosides glucoputranjivin, glucocochlearin, and glucoconringiin have been reported to occur in this species (Kjaer 1960). Cole (1976) reported that autolysis of the glucosinolates present in the plant resulted in the release of sec-butyl and allyl isothiocyanates.



Conringia orientalis Dumort.
(syn. Erysimum orientale R. Br.)

Glucoconringiin, an hydroxy-substituted alkyl glucosinolate, has been reported from this species (Kjaer 1960).



Coronopus didymus Sm.
(syn. Senebiera didyma Pers.)
Swine Cress

Glucotropaeolin, an aromatic glucosinolate, has been reported to occur in this species (Kjaer 1960).



Crambe maritima L.
Sea Kale

Sinigrin, an alkenyl glucosinolate, has been reported to occur in this species (Kjaer 1960).



Descurainia sophia Webb ex Prantl
(syns Discurea sophia Schur, Hesperis sophia Kuntze, Sisymbrium parviflorum Lam., Sisymbrium sophia L., Sophia parviflora Standl., Sophia sophia Britton)
Flixweed, Herb Sophia, Tansy Mustard

This plant, which has a pungent odour and an acrid taste, has been used externally to treat indolent ulcers (UNESCO 1960).

Kjaer (1960) reported the detection of sinigrin in the seeds of this species, but Cole (1976) found that sec-butyl isothiocyanate is released from the plant on autolysis of its glucosinolates.



Diplotaxis erucoides DC.
White Rocket

This species has irritant properties (Pammel 1911). It has been found to yield principally sinigrin (Kjaer 1960, Hasapis et al. 1981). This is not consistent with the observation by Cole (1976) that the plant yields 4-methylthiobutyl and other methyl-thio-alkyl isothiocyanates on autolysis of its glucosinolates.



Diplotaxis muralis DC.
Annual Wall Rocket, Sand Rocket

This species has been found to contain sinigrin (Kjaer 1960).



Diplotaxis tenuifolia DC.
Wall Rocket

This species is irritant (Pammel 1911). Kjaer (1960) reports the presence of glucoerucin in this species; this would account for the observation by Cole (1976) that 4-methylthiobutyl isothiocyanate is released on autolysis of the glucosinolates present in the plant.



Diplotaxis viminea DC.

The plant material releases 4-methylthiobutyl isothiocyanate on autolysis of its glucosinolates (Cole 1976).



Draba borealis DC.

 

Draba incana L.
Hoary Whitlow Grass

The presence of alkenyl glucosinolates in the seeds of these species has been reported (Kjaer 1960).



Eruca vesicaria Cav. ssp sativa Thell.
(syn. Eruca sativa Mill.)
Rocket-Salad, Taramira, Rugula

The leaves are used for salad (Bailey 1971).

The seeds, which are acrid and vesicant, are used like mustard (Brassica nigra Koch). Taramira oil expressed from the seeds is used for culinary purposes. When applied to the hair, this oil causes allergic dermatitis and photodermatitis of the scalp, neck, and skin around the ears. Use of the oil for vitiligo and other skin diseases by indigenous practitioners in India can result in persistent melanosis (Behl et al. 1966). The plant is used as a rubefacient in Mexico (Díaz 1976).

Glucoerucin has been reported from the seeds and green parts of this plant (Kjaer 1960). This would account for the observation by Cole (1976) that 4-methylthiobutyl isothiocyanate is released from the plant on autolysis of its glucosinolates.



Erucastrum gallicum O. Schulz
(syn. Erucastrum pollichii Schimper & Spenner)

Gluconapin and glucobrassicanapin, two alkenyl glucosinolates, have been reported from E. gallicum; gluconasturtiin, an aromatic glucosinolate, has been reported from E. pollichii (Kjaer 1960).



Erysimum L.

Glucosinolates from several species have been identified (see Kjaer 1960):

Erysimum asperum DC.
(syn. Erysimum arkansanum Nutt.)
Erysimum decumbens Dennst.
(syn. Erysimum ochroleucum DC.)
Erysimum nanum Boiss. & Hohen
Erysimum perofskianum Fisch. & C. Meyer
Erysimum pumilum DC.
Erysimum rupestre DC. 

Autolysis of the glucosinolates of Erysimum perofskianum results in the release of methyl-thio-alkyl isothiocyanates (Cole 1976).



Erysimum aureum Bieb.

 

Erysimum cheiranthoides L.
Blister Cress, Wormseed Mustard, Treacle Mustard

Pammel (1911) noted that E. cheiranthoides has irritant properties.

Cole (1976) reported that autolysis of the glucosinolates present in both species resulted in the release of methyl-thio-alkyl and sec-butyl isothiocyanates. Glucocochlearin, an alkyl glucosinolate, has been reported from E. cheiranthoides (Kjaer 1960).



Erysimum hieracifolium L.

 

Erysimum repandum L.

Autolysis of the glucosinolates of these species resulted in the release of methyl-thio-alkyl isothiocyanates, principally 4-methylthiobutyl isothiocyanate; the former species released very much more mustard oil than the latter (Cole 1976).



Fibigia clypeata Medikus
(syn. Farsetia clypeata R. Br.)

Glucoerucin, a methyl-thio-alkyl glucosinolate, has been reported from this species (Kjaer 1960).



Hesperis matronalis L.
Dame's Violet

Glucoerucin has been reported from this species (Kjaer 1960); this accounts for the observation by Cole (1976) that 4-methylthiobutyl isothiocyanate is released from the plant on autolysis of its glucosinolates.



Hirschfeldia incana Lagr.-Fossat
(syn. Sinapis incana L.)
Hoary Mustard

Cole (1976) reports that a small quantity of mustard oil (consisting of 2-phenylethyl, but-3-enyl, allyl, and methyl-thio-alkyl isothiocyanates) is released from the plant on autolysis of its glucosinolates, together with large quantities of cyano compounds.



Hutchinsia alpina R. Br.

Gluconasturtiin, an aromatic glucosinolate, has been reported from this species (Kjaer 1960).



Iberis amara L.
Candytuft

Glucoiberin, a methyl-thio-alkyl glucosinolate, has been reported from this species (Kjaer 1960). Cole (1976) reports that methyl-thio-alkyl isothiocyanates are released from the plant material on autolysis of its glucosinolates.



Iberis sempervirens L.

Glucoibervirin and glucoerucin, two methyl-thio-alkyl glucosinolates, have been reported from this species (Kjaer 1960).



Isatis lusitanica L.
(syn. Isatis aleppica Scop.)

Cole (1976) notes that but-3-enyl isothiocyanate is released from I. aleppica on autolysis of its glucosinolates.



Isatis tinctoria L.
(syns Isatis indigotica Fortune, Isatis yezoensis Ohwi)
Asp-of-Jerusalem, Dyer's Woad

The seeds of this species have been reported to contain gluconapin, an alkenyl glucosinolate (Kjaer 1960). Cole (1976) found only small quantities of methyl-thio-alkyl glucosinolates being released from the plant on autolysis of its glucosinolates.



Lepidium L.

Alkyl, aromatic, and methyl-thio-alkyl glucosinolates have been reported from the following species (Kjaer 1960):

Lepidium densiflorum Schrader
Lepidium graminifolium L.
Lepidium menziesii DC.
Lepidium ruderale L.
Lepidium virginicum L. 

Cole (1976) found that Lepidium graminifolium and Lepidium heterophyllum Benth. released only very small quantities of methyl-thio-alkyl isothiocyanates on autolysis of their glucosinolates, nitriles being produced in very much larger quantities.



Lepidium campestre R. Br.
Field Pepperwort, Cow Cress

This species, a native of Great Britain, is also found throughout eastern North America (Fernald 1950). The green parts and the seeds have been reported to contain sinalbin, an aromatic glucosinolate (Kjaer 1960).



Lepidium latifolium L.
Dittander

The juice, when applied to the skin, excites redness, inflammation, and purulent exudation (De Candolle 1804).



Lepidium sativum L.
Garden Cress, Pepper Grass

Piffard (1881) noted that the fresh leaves redden the skin. Irritant properties of the plant were known to Dioscorides in the 1st Century (Gunther 1959) and are recorded by White (1887) and by Weber (1937). The oil is vesicant akin to mustard oil (Brassica nigra Koch); the plant is pounded and applied to the skin as a poultice for its rubefacient properties (Burkill 1935). The species is both cultivated and found as a common winter weed in crop fields all over India. The seeds are mildly irritant causing irritant dermatitis in "sensitive" individuals (Behl et al. 1966). According to Merzouki et al. (2000), the seed powder is used in NW Moroccan traditional medicine as an external application in the treatment of skin ulcers and warts.

Hjorth & Roed-Petersen (1976) demonstrated occupational contact allergy to cress in food handlers. The plant concerned may or may not have been this species.

The green parts and seeds of the plant have been reported to contain gluconasturtiin, an aromatic glucosinolate (Kjaer 1960). Sinigrin and glucotropaeolin have also been identified in the seeds (Gill & MacLeod 1980a). Gill & MacLeod (1980b) noted that benzyl thiocyanate rather than benzyl isothiocyanate is produced from the seed extract on hydrolysis of the glucotropaeolin. The finding of Cole (1976) that the plant releases only very small quantities of mustard oil (benzyl isothiocyanate) on autolysis of its glucosinolates is also consistent with the presence of glucotropaeolin, but the failure to detect either allyl or 2-phenylethyl isothiocyanates is of significance.



Lobularia maritima Desv.
(syn. Alyssum maritimum Lam.)
Sweet Alyssum, Sea Alyssum

Hasapis et al. (1981) investigated the mustard oil glycosides of this plant, and found principally but-3-enyl glucosinolate. Glucoalyssin, a methyl-thio-alkyl glucosinolate, has previously been reported from Alyssum maritimum (Kjaer 1960). Cole (1976), however, failed to detect any mustard oils being released from the plant material, finding 1-cyano-3,4-epithiobutane to be the principal product of autolysis of the glucosinolates.



Lunaria annua L.
(syn. Lunaria biennis Moench)
Honesty

The glucosinolates glucoputranjivin, glucocochlearin, and glucoberteroin have been reported from the seeds of this species (Kjaer 1960).



Lunaria rediviva L.

Glucoberteroin, a methyl-thio-alkyl glucosinolate, has been reported from the seeds of this species (Kjaer 1960). Cole (1976) found very small quantities of methyl-thio-alkyl isothiocyanates being released from the plant on autolysis of its glucosinolates.



Malcolmia maritima R. Br.

Glucocheirolin and glucoalyssin, two methyl-thio-alkyl glucosinolates, have been reported from this species (Kjaer 1960).



Matthiola fruticulosa Maire
(syns Matthiola tristis R. Br., Cheiranthus fruticulosus L.)

Gmelin & Kjaer (1970) reinvestigated the seed of this plant and could not confirm the presence of methyl glucosinolate which had previously been reported. The principal thioglucoside was a methyl-thio-alkyl glucosinolate.



Matthiola incana R. Br. ssp incana
(syns Matthiola annua R. Br., Matthiola fenestralis R. Br.)
Hoary Stock

Glucoputranjivin (an alkyl glucosinolate) and glucoerucin (a methyl-thio-alkyl glucosinolate) have been detected in the seeds of this taxon (Kjaer 1960). Only very small quantities of mustard oils (methyl-thio-alkyl and 2-phenylethyl isothiocyanates) are released from the plant on autolysis of its glucosinolates (Cole 1976).



Matthiola longipetala DC. ssp bicornis P. Ball
(syn. Matthiola bicornis DC.)

A methyl-thio-alkenyl glucosinolate, named glucoraphenin, has been isolated from this taxon (Kjaer 1960).



Nasturtium microphyllum Reichb.
(syns Nasturtium uniseriatum Howard & Manton, Rorippa microphylla Hylander)

The plant released 2-phenylethyl isothiocyanate on autolysis of its glucosinolates (Cole 1976).



Nasturtium officinale R. Br.
(syns Rorippa nasturtium-aquaticum Hayek, Sisymbrium nasturtium-aquaticum L.)
Water Cress

Water cress has caused contact dermatitis of the hands in housewives (Shelmire 1940).

The plant contains an aromatic glucosinolate named gluconasturtiin (Kjaer 1960), and small quantities of methyl-thio-alkyl glucosinolates (Gil & MacLeod 1980b). Cole (1976), referring to Rorippa nasturtium-aquaticum, noted that 2-phenylethyl isothiocyanate was the only detectable isothiocyanate released on autolysis of the glucosinolates of the plant.



Neslia paniculata Desv. ssp thracica Bornm.
(syns Neslia apiculata Fischer, Meyer, & Avé-Lall., Vogelia paniculata Hornem.)

Kjaer & Schuster (1972) found methyl-thio-alkyl glucosinolates in the seeds. Glucocapparin (methyl glucosinolate) has previously been reported to occur in the green parts of the plant (Kjaer 1960), but this observation was probably erroneous as glucocapparin has yet to be conclusively demonstrated to occur outside the family Capparaceae (see Hedge et al. 1980).



Peltaria emarginata Hausskn.

This species from Greece and Euboea grows naturally on nickel-rich soils, and is capable of hyperaccumulating this element (Reeves et al. 1980). Other species of Peltaria Jacq. and the closely related genera Peltariopsis N. Busch, Ricotia L., and Tchihatchewia Boiss. were found to be non-accumulators of nickel. The dermatological properties of nickel and its salts are well documented (Malten et al. 1976, Cronin 1980).



Pringlea antiscorbutica R. Br.
Kerguelen Cabbage

This species occurs naturally on Kerguelen and Crozet Islands (Willis 1973). Delaveau et al. (1973) identified sinigrin and glucotropaeolin in the plant.



Raphanus raphanistrum L.
Wild Radish

Cole (1976) observed that autolysis of the glucosinolates in this species caused the release of a small amount of mustard oil composed mainly of allyl isothiocyanate, but also some methyl-thio-alkyl isothiocyanates.



Raphanus sativus L. var radicula Pers.
(syn. Raphanus radicula Pers.)
Radish

Dermatitis of the hands in housewives and in children who had played with radish leaves was reported by Shelmire (1940), Waldbott & Shea (1948), and Behl et al. (1966). A waitress who chopped radishes developed dermatitis of the fingers. Patch tests revealed positive reactions to allyl- and benzyl-isothiocyanate, negative to phenyl isothiocyanate (Mitchell & Jordan 1974). Radish juice produced a positive patch test reaction in 5 of 53 patients with hand dermatitis suspected to have been caused by vegetables (Sinha et al. 1977).

The glucosinolates of this and other varieties of Raphanus sativus were reviewed by (Kjaer 1960). Cole (1976) noted that autolysis of the glucosinolates of Raphanus sativus caused the release of mainly allyl isothiocyanate together with very small quantities of benzyl, 2-phenylethyl, and methyl-thio-alkyl isothiocyanates.



Rapistrum perenne All.

Gluconapin, an alkenyl glucosinolate, has been reported from this species (Kjaer 1960).



Rapistrum rugosum All.

Glucocheirolin, a methyl-thio-alkyl glucosinolate, has been reported from this species (Kjaer 1960). Cole (1976) observed that autolysis of the glucosinolates of this species resulted in the release of a small quantity of mustard oil consisting mainly of 4-methylthiobut-3-enyl isothiocyanate.



Rhyncosinapis monensis Dandy
(syn. Brassicella monensis O. Schulz)
Isle of Man Cabbage

Autolysis of the glucosinolates of this species results in the release of benzyl isothiocyanate (Cole 1976).



Sinapis alba L.
(syn. Brassica alba Boiss.)
White Mustard

Gardner & Bennetts (1956) included Brassica alba in a list of plants known or suspected of causing urticaria or skin irritation. Nadkarni (1976) noted that the volatile oil is rubefacient and vesicant. Sinalbin and gluconasturtiin, two aromatic glucosinolates, have been reported from the seeds and roots respectively (Kjaer 1960). Cole (1976) observed that the plant released only a small amount of mustard oil (consisting mainly of 2-phenylethyl isothiocyanate) on autolysis of its glucosinolates.

Irritation of the mouth occurs when animals eat cake containing crushed white mustard seeds, the plant with pods, or the stubble (North 1967).



Sinapis arvensis L.
(syns Brassica sinapistrum Boiss., Brassica arvensis Rabenh.)
Charlock, Wild Mustard

This species is a common weed of cornfields. The plant was suspected of evoking photodermatitis (Spillmann & Weis 1931).

The mustard oil glycosides of this species have been studied (Kjaer 1960, Hasapis et al. 1981). Sinigrin, an alkenyl glucosinolate, appears to be the principal compound. Cole (1976) reported that but-3-enyl isothiocyanate was released from the plant on autolysis of its glucosinolates.



Sisymbrium altissimum L.

2-Phenylethyl isothiocyanate and small amounts of methyl-thio-alkyl isothiocyanates are released from the plant material on autolysis of its glucosinolates. The principal product of autolysis is an oxazolidinethione (Cole 1976).



Sisymbrium austriacum Jacq.

Glucosisymbrin, an hydroxylated alkyl glucosinolate, has been reported from this species (Kjaer 1960). Only a very small quantity of mustard oil (methyl-thio-alkyl isothiocyanates) was released from the plant material on autolysis of its glucosinolates. The principal product of autolysis was an oxazolidinethione (Cole 1976).



Sisymbrium irio L.
London Rocket

The seeds have a hot sharp taste and are rubefacient and vesicant to the skin (Behl et al. 1966). Cole (1976) found that isopropyl and sec-butyl isothiocyanates were released from the plant material on autolysis of its glucosinolates.



Sisymbrium officinale Scop.
(syn. Chamaeplium officinale Wallr.)
Hedge Mustard

Allyl isothiocyanate is released from the plant material on autolysis of its glucosinolates. A larger quantity of an oxazolidinethione is also produced (Cole 1976).



Sisymbrium orientale L.

The mustard oil glycosides of this species were studied by Hasapis et al. (1981). Cole (1976) observed that autolysis of the glucosinolates of this plant resulted in the release principally of an oxazolidinthione and cyano compounds. Very small quantities of methyl-thio-alkyl and 2-phenylethyl isothiocyanates where also released (Cole 1976).



Sisymbrium strictissimum L.

The glucosinolates of this species have been reported (Kjaer 1960). Cole (1976) observed that autolysis of the glucosinolates of the plant resulted in the release of mainly isopropyl and sec-butyl isothiocyanates. Some methyl-thio-alkyl isothiocyanates were also produced, and also a significant amount of an oxazolidinethione.



Stanleya pinnata Britton
(syn. Stanleya pinnatifida Nutt.)

This species can accumulate selenium in the form of selenocystathione, ingestion of which can lead to selenosis (Schoental 1965). See also Lecythis grandiflora Aublet, fam. Lecythidaceae and Aster venustus M.E. Jones, fam. Compositae.



Streptanthus polygaloides Gray
(syn. Microsemia polygaloides Greene)

Of several Streptanthus Nutt. and Caulanthus Watson species known to be tolerant of nickel-rich soils, Reeves et al. (1981) found only S. polygaloides to be a hyperaccumulator of nickel. Levels of between 14000 and 16000 ppm nickel were found in dried leaves and flowers, making this species the first nickel hyperaccumulator to be found in the New World. The ability of this taxon to hyperaccumulate nickel provides support for its movement to the monotypic genus Microsemia Greene.



Teesdalia nudicaulis R. Br.
Shepherd's Cress

Autolysis of the glucosinolates of this species resulted in the release of a small amount of 2-phenylethyl glucosinolate (Cole 1976).



Thlaspi arvense L.
Field Penny Cress

The presence of sinigrin in this species has been reported (Kjaer 1960).



Wasabia japonica Matsum.
(syns Eutrema wasabi Maxim., Lunaria japonica Miq.)
Wasabi, Japanese Horseradish

This species contains the thioglucosides glucocochlearin and sinigrin, the former being an alkyl glucosinolate, the latter an alkenyl glucosinolate (Kjaer 1960, Hodge 1974).



DERMATOLOGY

Reports of cutaneous effects of mustard oils were provided by Lehner & Rajka (1925, 1927), Konrich & Muntsch (1931), Bacq (1946), Greenberg & Lester (1954); effects on the eye were described by Grant (1974).

Those isothiocyanates that have been tested on human skin have been observed to produce irritant effects. A suitable patch test concentration to avoid irritant reactions to synthetic oil of mustard (allyl isothiocyanate) was found to be 0.1% in petrolatum (Gaul 1964). A concentration of 1% in alcohol was recommended by Rostenberg & Sulzberger (1939). Allyl isothiocyanate (0.05%) and benzyl isothiocyanate (0.1%) in petrolatum produced equivocal responses in two of four individuals and may be marginal irritants. There were no spontaneous flares (Maibach 1973). Phenyl mustard oils were found to be more irritant to the skin and conjunctivae of dogs than were aliphatic mustard oils (Takahashi 1939).

Mustard oil (allyl isothiocyanate) has been reported to produce allergic contact dermatitis in the guinea pig (Landsteiner & Di Somma 1938) and in man (Gaul 1964). Allyl- and benzyl- but not phenyl-isothiocyanate elicited positive patch test reactions in an investigation of radish (Raphanus sativus L. var radicula Pers.) allergy (Mitchell & Jordan 1974). These authors also demonstrated that sinigrin, the thioglucoside of allyl isothiocyanate, when mixed with the enzyme myrosinase in petrolatum, produced a positive patch test reaction in the patient, a female waitress. Phenyl isothiocyanate in adhesive tape has caused contact dermatitis (Fregert et al. 1982), as has methyl isothiocyanate in soil disinfectant (Richter 1980).

Phenyl isothiocyanate has been found to be a moderate sensitiser in guinea pigs; four patients who gave positive patch test reactions to benzyl isothiocyanate following the use of the topical antimycotic dibenzthione (which decomposes to benzyl isothiocyanate), failed to react to phenyl isothiocyanate (Fregert et al. 1983).


References

  • Díaz JL (1976) Usos de las Plantas Medicinales de México. México: Instituto Mexicano para el Estudio de las Plantas Medicinales [WorldCat]
  • Gardner CA and Bennetts HW (1956) The Toxic Plants of Western Australia. Perth: West Australian Newspapers
  • Gmelin R and Kjær A (1970) Glucosinolates in Matthiola fruticulosa and related species: a reinvestigation. Phytochemistry 9(3): 569-573
  • Merzouki A, Ed-derfoufi F, Molero Mesa J (2000) Contribution to the knowledge of Rifian traditional medicine. II: Folk medicine in Ksar Lakbir district (NW Morocco). Fitoterapia 71(3): 278-307
  • North PM (1967) Poisonous Plants and Fungi. London: Blandford Press
  • Pereira J (1835) Lectures on materia medica, or pharmacology, and general therapeutics, delivered at the Aldersgate School of Medicine. Introductory lecture. London Medical Gazette 17(409; Oct 3): 1-12 [url] [url-2]
  • Singh R, Siddiqui MA, Baruah MC (1978) Plant dermatitis in Delhi. Indian Journal of Medical Research 68(Oct): 650-655
  • Touton K (1932) Hauterkrankungen durch phanerogamische Pflanzen und ihre Produkte (Toxicodermia et Allergodermia phytogenes). In: Jadassohn J (Ed.) Handbuch der Haut- und Geschlechtskrankheiten. Band IV, Teil I. Angeborene Anomalien. Lichtdermatosen. Pflanzengifte. Thermische Schädigungen. Einfluss Innerer Störungen auf die Haut, pp. 487-697. Berlin: Julius Springer [WorldCat] [url] [url-2]
  • Train P, Henrichs JR, Archer WA (1957) Medicinal Uses of Plants by Indian Tribes of Nevada. (Revised edn by Archer WA). Beltsville, MD: US Dept of Agriculture, Plant Industry Station [WorldCat]
  • UNESCO (1960) Medicinal Plants of the Arid Zones. Arid Zone Research — XIII. Paris: United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization [WorldCat] [url]
  • Watt JM, Breyer-Brandwijk MG (1962) The Medicinal and Poisonous Plants of Southern and Eastern Africa. Being an account of their medicinal and other uses, chemical composition, pharmacological effects and toxicology in man and animal, 2nd edn. Edinburgh: E & S Livingstone [WorldCat] [url]



Richard J. Schmidt [Valid HTML 4.01!]



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