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   Index



 

COMPOSITAE — 16
Iva - Leucophyta

(Daisy or Sunflower family)

 


Iva L.
Marshelder

This genus of 15 species is classified in the tribe Heliantheae. It occurs in North and Central America and in the West Indies.

Tan & Mitchell (1968) observed positive patch test reactions to an unspecified Iva species in photosensitive and lichen-allergic patients with so-called "cedar-poisoning" who were also sensitive to various members of the Compositae.

Potentially allergenic sesquiterpene lactones have been reported from a number of species:

Iva acerosa R. Jackson
(syn. Oxytenia acerosa Nutt.)
Iva ambrosiaefolia A. Gray ssp ambrosiaefolia R. Jackson
(syn. Cyclachaena ambrosiaefolia Benth. & Hook. f.)
Iva asperifolia Less.
Iva axillaris Pursh ssp axillaris
Iva axillaris Pursh ssp robustior Bartlett
Iva dealbata A. Gray
Iva frutescens L.
Iva imbricata Walter
Iva nevadensis M.E. Jones
Iva texensis R. Jackson 

Other species are considered in the monographs below.



Iva angustifolia Nutt.
Narrow-Leaf Marshelder

Smith et al. (1942) reported dermatitis from this plant. In an investigation of "weed dermatitis", 18 of 50 patients showed positive patch test reactions to an extract of the plant (Shelmire 1939a).

Potentially allergenic sesquiterpene lactones have been reported from this species.



Iva ciliata Willd.
Marshelder

Contact sensitivity to this plant was reported by O'Quinn & Isbell (1969). Shelmire (1939a) observed no positive reactions to patch tests with an extract of this species in 50 patients with "weed dermatitis".



Iva microcephala Nutt.
Marshelder

This species produced a positive patch test reaction in a patient who had "weed dermatitis" (Williams et al. 1960).

Williams et al. (1960) described a case of a 37 year old field worker with a history of recurring generalised dermatitis and pollinosis of 15 years duration. Patch tests with a "common marsh elder antigen" preparation, probably prepared from Iva fructescens L. var oraris Bartlett, were negative. However, a patch test with a leaf from the locally common Iva microcephala produced a severely pruritic, later bullous, reaction.

Potentially allergenic sesquiterpene lactones have been reported from this species.



Iva xanthifolia Nutt.
(syn. Cyclachaena xanthifolia Fresen.)
Marshelder

Contact dermatitis from this plant was reported by Huber & Harsh (1932). About two thirds of patients who had "weed dermatitis" showed positive patch test reactions to this species (Brunsting & Anderson 1934, Brunsting & Williams 1936, Mackoff & Dahl 1951).

Frain-Bell & Johnson (1979) observed positive patch test reactions to an extract of this species in 5 from 43 patients with the photosensitivity dermatitis and actinic reticuloid syndrome.

Potentially allergenic sesquiterpene lactones have been reported from this species.



Ixodia R. Br.

Two species are recognised, Ixodia achillaeoides R. Br. and Ixodia flindersica Copley, the former being divided into three subspecies (Copley 1982). The genus is native to south-eastern Australia.



Ixodia achillaeoides R. Br.
Firebush

Turner (1980) observed positive (1+) patch test reactions to this species in a 68 year old dried flower arranger (see also Cynara cardunculus L.).



Kaunia saltensis R. King & H. Robinson

Aerial parts of this species were found to contain no sesquiterpene lactones, but did contain a monoterpenoid 1,4-benzoquinone derivative (Bohlmann et al. 1981q) that may be considered to be potentially allergenic (Evans & Schmidt 1980).



Lactuca L.

About 100 species occur chiefly in temperate Eurasia, but some also extend the range to tropical and southern Africa. The genus is classified in the tribe Lactuceae (Cichorieae).

Potentially allergenic sesquiterpene lactones have been reported from the following species:

Lactuca floridana Gaertner
Lactuca virosa L. 

Other species are considered in the monographs below.



Lactuca canadensis L.

This species has been used as a popular remedy for poison ivy (Toxicodendron Mill., fam. Anacardiaceae) dermatitis (Lewis & Elvin-Lewis 1977).



Lactuca sativa L.
Lettuce

A number of cultivars of this species are widely grown in Britain and elsewhere for use in salads. The species is thought to be a cultivated form of Lactuca serriola L. Only the young plants are used for salad; once they begin to flower, they develop a bitter taste and then become useful as a herbal sedative. The dried juice of this species (and of L. virosa L.) is known as lactucarium. It was formerly used medicinally; it contains some hyoscyamine and has been noted to induce mydriasis (Grant 1974).

Dermatitis from handling lettuce, together with urticaria from ingestion were reported by Rinkel & Balyeat (1932). Morris (1954) reported a positive patch test reaction to the leaf. The milky sap that exudes from the cut stems caused occupational contact dermatitis and conjunctivitis; hydroxybutyraldehyde which was applied to the stems may have been responsible for these effects (Schwartz et al. 1957). A gardener who had dermatitis from the mature plant showed positive patch test reactions to stem and leaf, and to aqueous and ethanolic extracts of fresh lettuce. Immature plants were innocuous (Krook 1973).

Frain-Bell & Johnson (1979) observed positive patch test reactions to the oleoresin from lettuce in 4 from 55 patients with the photosensitivity dermatitis and actinic reticuloid syndrome.

Closson (1974) reported swelling of the oral mucosa and Eustachian tubes following ingestion of lettuce. Downing (in discussion of Templeton 1945) observed salad makers with dermatitis from contact with lettuce and from ingestion of lettuce. Friis et al. (1975) also reported occupational contact dermatitis from lettuce. Both immediate and delayed hypersensitivity to lettuce and endive (Cichorium L.) in food handlers, with some cross-sensitivity to certain other members of the Compositae, was reported by Krook (1977). Fregert & Sjöborg (1982) reported immediate hypersensitivity to lettuce in two female patients with mild hand dermatitis, cheilitis, and peri-oral dermatitis.

The plant yields a sesquiterpene lactone (Yoshioka et al. 1973) that is potentially allergenic (Mitchell & Dupuis 1971).



Lactuca sativa L. var longifolia hort.
(syn. Lactuca longifolia DC.)
Romaine Lettuce

A greengrocer was contact sensitive to this plant and to cichory (see Cichorium L.) (Vail & Mitchell 1973). A patch test to the leaf was positive; negative in one control.



Lactuca serriola L.
(syn. Lactuca scariola L.)
Prickly Lettuce

The stem exudes an irritant milky sap (Schwartz et al. 1957). See also Lactuca sativa L. above.

Several potentially allergenic sesquiterpene lactones have been reported from this species.



Leontodon autumnalis L.
Smooth Hawkbit, Annual Hawkbit

Hausen (1979) observed that this species had a weak sensitising capacity in guinea pigs. He also reported that an extract of this species produced a positive (1+) patch test reaction in a gardener with allergy to Chrysanthemum indicum L. who was also sensitive to arnica (Arnica montana L.), camomile (Chamaemelum nobile All.), and tansy (Tanacetum vulgare L.).



Leucanthemum x superbum D.H. Kent
(syns Chrysanthemum maximum hort., Chrysanthemum x superbum Bergmans ex J.W. Ingram)
Shasta Daisy, Marguerite d'Été

This taxon is of hybrid origin, Kent (1990) describing its parentage as Leucanthemum lacustre Samp. x Leucanthemum maximum DC. According to another source, the plant is tetrahybrid derived from {{Leucanthemum vulgare Lam. x Leucanthemum maximum DC.} x Leucanthemum lacustre Samp.} x Nipponanthemum nipponicum Kitam. A number of named cultivars are grown commercially for the horticultural trade. The Shasta daisy has been confused with the daisy- or max-chrysanthemum, Leucanthemum maximum DC. (syn. Chrysanthemum maximum Ramond) in the dermatological literature.

Shelmire (1940), Gottron & Schonfeld (1959), and Rook (1960) referred to dermatitis from Chrysanthemum maximum. Two from 13 patients with "Australian bush dermatitis" showed positive patch test reactions to Shasta daisy (Burry et al. 1973). Burry (1979) later reported a positive patch test reaction to Shasta daisy in a patient who had "fleabane dermatitis" (see Conyza bonariensis Cronq.).



Leucanthemum vulgare Lam.
(syns Tanacetum leucanthemum Schulz-Bip., Chrysanthemum leucanthemum L.)
Marguerite, Ox-Eye Daisy

This is an extremely variable species or species complex which has been divided up into a large number of sub-specific taxa.

Dermatitis from this species was reported by Howe (1887), White (1887), Kren (1925), Oppenheim (1931), Bonnevie (1939), Ellerbroek (1952), Mackoff & Dahl (1951), Scarzella (1958), and Hjorth (1965).

Hausen (1981b) described a 40 year old female florist who was apparently sensitised to sesquiterpene lactones by contact with Tanacetum parthenium Schulz-Bip. She also reacted positively to patch tests with Chrysanthemum leucanthemum. An almost identical case of a 63 year old hobby gardener was reported by Hausen & Osmundsen (1983).

Cross-sensitivity reactions between this species and liverworts of the genus Frullania Raddi (fam. Jubulaceae) may also be observed (Fernandez de Corres & Corrales Torres 1978, Hausen & Osmundsen 1983).



Leucophyta brownii Cass.
(syn. Calocephalus brownii F. Muell.)
Cushion Bush, Snow Bush

[Information available but not yet included in database]




Richard J. Schmidt [Valid HTML 4.01!]



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