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   Index



 

COMPOSITAE — 14
Haploësthes - Helianthus

(Daisy or Sunflower family)

 



Haploësthes greggii A. Gray var texana I.M. Johnston
(syn. Haplopappus texanus J.M. Coulter)

The roots of this species contain α-terthienyl (Bohlmann et al. 1976), which is phototoxic to human skin (see Tagetes L. below).



Haplopappus rigidifolius E.B. Smith
(syns Aplopappus divaricatus A. Gray, Croptilon divaricatum Raf., Aplopappus hirtellus Philippe, Isopappus divaricatus Torrey & A. Gray var hirtellus Shinners)

Isocumambrin B, a potentially allergenic sesquiterpene lactone has been reported from this species.



Helenium L.

This genus of 40 species, all of which are native to western America, is classified in the tribe Helenieae.

Calnan (1978a) described a patient with contact sensitivity to unidentified species of Helenium and Chrysanthemum L., who was also sensitive to alantolactone, balsam of Peru (from Myroxylon balsamum Harms var pereirae Harms, fam. Leguminosae), and colophony.

Many of the species have been investigated for their sesquiterpene lactone content; potentially allergenic lactones have been reported from the following:

Helenium alternifolium Cabrera
(syn. Actinea alternifolia Sprengel)
Helenium aromaticum L. Bailey
(syns Graemia aromatica Hook., Cephalophora aromatica Schrader)
Helenium bigelovii A. Gray
Helenium bloomquistii H. Rock (unpublished)
Helenium campestre Small
Helenium flexuosum Raf.
Helenium laciniatum A. Gray
Helenium linifolium Rydb.
Helenium mexicanum Kunth
Helenium microcephalum DC. var ooclinium Bierner
(syn. Helenium ooclinium A. Gray)
Helenium pinnatifidum Rydb.
(syn. Leptopoda pinnatifida Schwein.)
Helenium plantagineum J.F. Macbr.
(syn. Cephalophora plantaginea DC.)
Helenium puberulum DC.
Helenium quadridentatum Labill.
Helenium scorzoneraefolia A. Gray
(syn. Hecubaea scorzoneraefolia DC.)
Helenium thurberi A. Gray
Helenium vernale Walter
Helenium virginicum Blake 

Other species are considered in the monographs below.



Helenium amarum H. Rock var amarum
(syn. Helenium tenuifolium Nutt.)
Bitterweed, Fine-Leaved Sneezeweed, Yellowdicks

In an investigation of "weed dermatitis", 28 of 50 patients showed positive patch test reactions to an extract of Helenium tenuifolium (Shelmire 1939a). This species causes seasonal allergic contact dermatitis in Arkansas, occurring from spring to frost, but handling hay or silage during the winter may result in perennial symptoms. Honeycutt (1972) observed 14 cases; 13 were male, mostly farmers of average age 53 years. The face, neck, dorsa of the hands, forearms, ankles, and lower legs were affected with acute vesicular dermatitis proceeding to chronic lichenified dermatitis with flexural involvement resembling atopic dermatitis. Patch tests to an acetone extract of the plant produced produced positive reactions. The clinical features thus closely resembled Ambrosia dermatitis but only one of the 14 cases also reacted to extract from an Ambrosia L. species.

Potentially allergenic sesquiterpene lactones have been reported from this species.



Helenium autumnale L.
Sneezeweed, False Sunflower

The flowers have long been used as a sternutatory, and the whole plant is acrid and pungent (Chesnut 1898, Hurst 1942).

Balyeat et al. (1932) reported contact dermatitis from this species. In an investigation of "weed dermatitis", 20 of 25 patients showed positive patch test reactions to an extract of the plant (Mackoff & Dahl 1951). These patients were also contact sensitive to some other members of the Compositae. In a further three cases, cross-sensitivity was observed between H. autumnale and species of Chrysanthemum L., Tanacetum L., and Ambrosia L. (Mitchell 1972).

Frain-Bell & Johnson (1979) observed positive patch test reactions to the oleoresin from this species in 4 from 55 patients with the photosensitivity dermatitis and actinic reticuloid syndrome. Thune & Solberg (1980) observed a positive patch test reaction to the oleoresin of this species in a photosensitive and lichen allergic patient.

Several potentially allergenic sesquiterpene lactones have been reported from this species.



Helenium microcephalum DC.
Sneezeweed, Small Head Sneezeweed

In an investigation of "weed dermatitis", 29 of 50 patients showed positive patch test reactions to an extract of this species (Shelmire 1939a).

Several potentially allergenic sesquiterpene lactones have been reported from this species.



Helianthella uniflora Torrey & A. Gray
(syn. Helianthus uniflorus Nutt.)

The root is used by Nevada Indians as a counter-irritant (Train et al. 1957).



Helianthus L.

This genus, which is classified in the tribe Heliantheae, comprises some 110 species native to the Americas. The tubers of Helianthus tuberosus L. provide Jerusalem artichokes.

Frain-Bell & Johnson (1979) observed positive patch test reactions to the oleoresin from an unidentified Helianthus species in 5 from 55 patients with the photosensitivity dermatitis and actinic reticuloid syndrome.

Dermatitis from sunflower (which may or may not have been a species of Helianthus) was reported by Dreyer (1906).

Potentially allergenic sesquiterpene lactones have been reported from the following species:

Helianthus angustifolius L.
Helianthus ciliaris DC.
Helianthus maximiliani Schrader
Helianthus mollis Lam.
Helianthus niveus Hieron
Helianthus pumilus Nutt.
Helianthus tuberosus L. 


Helianthus annuus L.
Common Sunflower

The name sunflower, when unsupported by a botanical name, usually refers to this species. The seeds of the common sunflower (H. annuus) are the source of an edible oil known as sunflower oil.

Hausen (1979) reported that the plant has a high sensitising capacity in guinea pigs.

H. annuus may be a significant cause of dermatitis in countries where the plant is grown. Of 1197 patch tests with the leaves, Rávnay & Garazsi (1955) in Hungary observed 3.12% of positive reactions, mostly in female land-workers. A report of dermatitis in farmers from contact with sunflowers (Sneid 1955) is not well substantiated. Rajka (1948) reported an occupational dermatitis from sunflower seed with a positive patch test reaction to an aqueous extract of the seed. Greenberg & Lester (1954) refer briefly to dermatitis from picking sunflower seeds. In an investigation of "weed dermatitis", one of 50 patients had a positive patch test reaction to an extract of the plant (Shelmire 1940). Noussitou & Cordero (1951) report two patients who, working with sunflower seeds, presented an allergic dermatosis directly relatable to the pollen of the plant, as demonstrated by scratch test and passive transfer.

Hausen & Osmundsen (1983) observed a positive patch test reaction to an extract of H. annuus (5% in petrolatum) in a hobby gardener who had become sensitised to Tanacetum parthenium Schulz-Bip. A 1% dilution of sunflower extract was observed to elicit positive patch test reactions in several patients with contact sensitivity to Chrysanthemum indicum L. (Hausen 1979).

Annuithrin, a potentially allergenic sesquiterpene lactone has been reported from H. annuus var giganteus hort.




Richard J. Schmidt [Valid HTML 4.01!]



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