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CAPRIFOLIACEAE

(Honeysuckle family)

 

• Medicinal / Folk-medicinal aspects: The use of decoctions and ointments to treat various skin affections and wounds has been reported, as has an essentially cosmetic use as a perfumed hair tonic. •
• Adverse effects: Adverse skin reactions have been reported but seem to be rare. •
• Veterinary aspects: With the exception of a single report of the use of one species to treat unspecified skin diseases in mules, no evidence of use of these plants in animal dermatology has been found. •

This family of 900 species of shrubs, lianes and herbs in 33 genera is distributed through northern temperate regions, also occurring in South Africa and on tropical mountains. The principal genera are Lonicera L., (180 spp.), Scabiosa L. (80 spp.), Valeriana L. (about 200 spp.), and Valerianella Mill. (50 spp.). Until recently, the genera Sambucus L. and Viburnum L. were also included in this family, these now having been moved to the Adoxaceae. Also, genera previously classified in the Dipsacaceae and the Valerianaceae are now regarded as belonging to the Caprifoliaceae (Angiosperm Phylogeny Group 2003, Mabberley 2008). Some authorities place the genera Diervilla Mill., and Weigela Thunb. in the Diervillaceae (the bush honeysuckle family).

Honeysuckles of the genus Lonicera L., and snowberries of the genus Symphoricarpos Duhamel are found in Europe both in the wild and in cultivation as ornamental shrubs. Various species and cultivars of Diervilla Mill. and especially of Weigela Thunb. ("weigelias") are also grown, as are red valerian (Centranthus ruber DC.) and various Patrinia Juss., Scabiosa L., and Valeriana L. species (Hunt 1968/70). Horn of plenty (Fedia cornucopiae Gaertner) is sometimes cultivated as a salad crop, as is lambs' lettuce or Lewiston cornsalad (Valerianella locusta Laterr., syn. Valerianella olitoria Pollich).

The flower heads of Dipsacus fullonum L. ssp sativus (L.) Thell., the fuller's teasel, have hooked spiny bracts. This has led to the use of the matured and dried flower heads ("burrs") for raising a nap on cloth. The fuller's teasel is regarded as a cultivated form of the wild teasel Dipsacus fullonum L. ssp fullonum (Ryder 1996). Dispacus fullonum ssp sativus and Dipsacus fullonum ssp fullonum have some horticultural value especially for use in dried flower arrangements.



Diervilla lonicera L.
(syns Diervilla canadensis Willd., Diervilla trifida Moench)
Bush Honeysuckle, Dièreville Chèvrefeuille

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Dipsacus asper Wall.
Teasel

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Dipsacus fullonum L. ssp fullonum
(syns Dipsacus fullonum L. var sylvestris Schmalh., Dipsacus sylvestris Hudson)
Common Teasel, Teasel, Wild Teasel

Piffard (1881) referred to an earlier report in which it was noted that Dipsacus sylvestris has proven useful in the local treatment of warts, but provided no detail.



Lonicera L.
Honeysuckle

Ripps (1958) provided a case report of recurring pruritic allergic dermatitis in a dachshund. The owner noticed an odour of jasmine when the dog came into the house, indicating that the dog had been in contact with Lonicera [species not identified] bushes that were flowering at the time. No further episodes of dermatitis occurred after the bushes were removed.



Lonicera caprifolium L.
(syn. Lonicera pallida Host)
Italian Honeysuckle, Italian Woodbine, Perfoliate Honeysuckle

A case report of dermatitis from this species in a 46-year old female was provided by Schönfeld (1936).

[Further information available but not yet included in database]



Lonicera confusa DC.
(syns Caprifolium confusum Spach, Lonicera dasystyla Rehder, Lonicera multiflora Champ. ex Benth., Lonicera telfairii Hook. & Arn., Nintooa confusa Sweet)
Soft-Leafed Honeysuckle

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Lonicera hypoglauca Miq.
(syns Caprifolium hypoglaucum Kuntze, Lonicera affinis Hook. & Arn. var hypoglauca Rehder, Lonicera affinis Hook. & Arn. var pubescens Maxim.)
Honeysuckle

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Lonicera involucrata Banks ex Spring
(syns Distegia involucrata Cockerell, Xylosteon involucratum Richardson)
Black Twin-Berry, Twinberry Honeysuckle

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Lonicera japonica Thunb. ex Murray
Chinese Honeysuckle, Japanese Honeysuckle

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Lonicera periclymenum L.
(syn. Lonicera serotina Gand.)
Common Honeysuckle, European Honeysuckle, Woodbine

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Nardostachys jatamansi DC.
(syns Nardostachys grandiflora DC., Patrinia jatamansi D. Don)
Indian Spikenard, Indian Valerian, Muskroot, Nard, Spikenard

This species is the source of oil of spikenard or Indian valerian root oil, a fragrance raw material. Arctander (1960) noted that the oil is a scarce commodity and, when available, is frequently adulterated. The oil from the false jatamansi (Selinum vaginatum C.B. Clarke, fam. Umbelliferae) is a possible adulterant (Srivastava et al. 2010).

Valeriana jatamansi Jones (see below), is also known as Indian valerian and also recognised as a source of Indian spikenard oil. The two species are considered to be distinct by Mabberley (2008) and by other authorities but are seemingly widely regarded as one and the same plant in the general literature. The nomenclatural confusion (see Weberling 1975) has its origins in the work of early botanists who sought to equate the jatamansi of the Hindus with the spikenard mentioned in the Bible.

[Further information available but not yet included in database]



Scabiosa L.
Scabious

Several species in this genus of 100 hardy biennial and perennial herbaceous plants are cultivated in gardens.

A patch test to an unidentified species of Scabiosa in a 67-year old gardener who had developed dermatitis of the hands and face from chrysanthemums (fam. Compositae) and primulas (fam. Primulaceae), produced a negative reaction (Leipold 1938).



Scabiosa columbaria L.
(syns Scabiosa anthemifolia Eckl. & Zeyh., Scabiosa austroafricana Heine)
Dove Pincushion, Pincushion Flower, Pigeon Scabious, Small Scabious, Columbaire, Tauben-Skabiose

According to Watt & Breyer-Brandwijk (1962), the dried plant is in common use among the African as a perfumed dusting powder, especially for infants; and the Xhosa use a preparation of the root as an application to sore eyes. They also noted that an ointment made from the charred root and kerosene is applied by the Sotho to venereal sores.



Scabiosa transvaalensis S. Moore
Wild Scabious

The Tswana use a decoction of the root as a lotion for sore eyes (Watt & Breyer-Brandwijk 1962).



Succisa pratensis Moench
(syn. Scabiosa succisa L.)
Blue Buttons, Devil's Bit Scabious, Teufelsabbiß, Mors du Diable, Tête de Loup

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Symphoricarpos albus Blake var albus
(syns Symphoricarpos pauciflorus W.J. Robins. ex Gray, Symphoricarpos racemosus Michaux, Vaccinium album L.)
Waxberry, Snowberry, Snowball

The Songish, Saanich, and Cowichan Indians of the north-western coast of North America rubbed the berries on rashes, sores, and burns (Turner & Bell 1971).

[Further information available but not yet included in database]

Pammel (1911) listed Symphoricarpos racemosus as having irritant properties, but may have been referring to gastro-intestinal rather than dermatologic effects.



Valeriana capensis Thunb.
Cape Valerian

Referring to earlier literature, Watt & Breyer-Brandwijk (1962) noted that in the traditional medicine of southern Africa, the root is used externally and internally as an irritant.



Valeriana dioica L. var sylvatica S. Watson
(syn. Valeriana septentrionalis Rydb.)
Woods Valerian

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Valeriana jatamansi Jones
(syns Valeriana harmsii Graebn., Valeriana hygrobia Briq., Valeriana mairei Briq., Valeriana wallichii DC.)
Indian Valerian, Indischer Baldrian

Valeriana Jatamansi Extract [CAS RN 94280-15-6]a, which is an extract of the roots, is a recognised European cosmetic product ingredient used for "skin conditioning" (Standing Committee on Cosmetic Products 2006). Valeriana Jatamansi Rhizome Oil [CAS RN 94280-15-6], an oil distilled from the roots, is also used as a cosmetic product ingredient. It is known as sugandhawal oil in India and Nepal where it is used in perfumery (ANSAB 2006).

See also Nardostachys jatamansi DC. above, which also is known as Indian valerian.



Valeriana officinalis L.
(syn. Valeriana exaltata J.C. Mikan)
All-Heal, Capon's Tail, Garden Heliotrope, Setwall, Valerian, Baldrian, Katzenkraut, Herbe-aux-Chats, Valériane

The crude drug Radix Valerianae is obtained the dried rhizome and roots of this plant (Remington et al. 1918). This has a long history of use as a herbal sedative. The fragrance raw materials valerian oil and valerian absolute are also derived from this plant (Arctander 1960).

Bateman (1836) noted that "both vesicular and pustular affections are excited by the local irritation of blisters, stimulating plasters, and cataplasms of … Arsenic, Valerian root, &c."

The use of this plant in Italian folk veterinary medicine for the treatment of [unspecified] skin conditions in mules is noted by Viegi et al. (2003).



Weigela japonica Thunb.
(syns Diervilla floribunda Siebold & Zucc. var versicolor Rehder, Diervilla japonica DC., Diervilla versicolor Siebold & Zucc.)
Japanese Weigela

[Information available but not yet included in database]


References

  • Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2003) An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG II. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 141(4): 399-436 [doi] [url] [url-2]
  • ANSAB (2006) Sugandhawal. Valeriana jatamansi. [online article]: NTFP Information Sheets; accessed January 2013 [url]
  • Arctander S (1960) Perfume and Flavor Materials of Natural Origin. Elizabeth, NJ: S Arctander [WorldCat] [url]
  • Bateman T (1836) A Practical Synopsis of Cutaneous Diseases, According to the Arrangement of Dr. Willan; Exhibiting a Concise View of the Diagnostic Symptoms and the Method of Treatment, 8th edn. (Edited by Thomson AT). London: Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown, Green, & Longman [WorldCat] [url] [url-2]
  • Hunt P (Ed.) (1968/70) The Marshall Cavendish Encyclopedia of Gardening. London: Marshall Cavendish [WorldCat]
  • Leipold (1938) Dermatitis der Hände und des Gesichts infolge von Überempfindlichkeit gegen Chrysanthemen und Kamillen. [Dermatitis of the hands and face due to hypersensitivity to chrysanthemum and camomile]. Zentralblatt für Haut- und Geschlechtskrankheiten 57(4): 248-249
  • Mabberley DJ (2008) Mabberley's Plant-Book. A portable dictionary of plants, their classification and uses, 3rd edn. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press [WorldCat]
  • Pammel LH (1911) A Manual of Poisonous Plants. Chiefly of North America, with Brief Notes on Economic and Medicinal Plants, and Numerous Illustrations. Cedar Rapids, IA: Torch Press [WorldCat] [url] [url-2]
  • Piffard HG (1881) A Treatise on the Materia Medica and Therapeutics of the Skin. London: Sampson Low, Marston, Searle, & Rivington [WorldCat]
  • Remington JP, Wood HC, Sadtler SP, LaWall CH, Kraemer H, Anderson JF (Eds) (1918) The Dispensatory of the United States of America. 20th edn. Philadelphia: JB Lippincott [WorldCat] [url] [url-2]
  • Ripps JH (1958) Allergic dermatitis in a dog. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 133(9): 479
  • Ryder ML (1996) Is the fuller's teasel (Dipsacus sativus) really a distinct species? Linnean – Newsletter and Proceedings of the Linnean Society of London 11(4): 21-27
  • Schönfeld W (1936) Pflanzendermatitiden. [Plant dermatoses]. Medizinische Klinik 32(48~1667): 1617-1619
  • Srivastava A, Tiwari SS, Srivastava S, Rawat AKS (2010) HPTLC method for quantification of valerenic acid in Ayurvedic drug Jatamansi and its substitutes. Journal of Liquid Chromatography & Related Technologies 33(18): 1679-1688 [doi] [url] [url-2]
  • Standing Committee on Cosmetic Products (2006) Cosmetic ingredients other than perfume and aromatic raw materials (Commission Decision 2006/257/EC). Official Journal of the European Union 49(L 97): 1-528 [url] [url-2]
  • Turner NC, Bell MAM (1971) The ethnobotany of the Coast Salish Indians of Vancouver Island. Economic Botany 25(1): 63-104 [doi] [url] [url-2]
  • Viegi L, Pieroni A, Guarrera PM, Vangelisti R (2003) A review of plants used in folk veterinary medicine in Italy as basis for a databank. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 89(2-3): 221-244 [doi] [url] [pmid]
  • Watt JM, Breyer-Brandwijk MG (1962) The Medicinal and Poisonous Plants of Southern and Eastern Africa. Being an account of their medicinal and other uses, chemical composition, pharmacological effects and toxicology in man and animal, 2nd edn. Edinburgh: E & S Livingstone [WorldCat] [url]
  • Weberling F (1975) On the systematics of Nardostachys (Valerianaceae). Taxon 24(4): 443-452 [url] [url-2]
  • [ + 11 further references not yet included in database]



Richard J. Schmidt [Valid HTML 4.01!]



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