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   Index



 

BIGNONIACEAE — 2
Kigelia - Stereospermum

(Bignonia family)

 



Kigelia pinnata DC.
Sausage Tree

Govindachari et al. (1971) reported the presence of lapachol in the roots of this species. Lapachol is a known elicitor of contact dermatitis (Schulz et al. 1977).



Macfadyena unguis-cati A. Gentry
(syns Doxantha unguis-cati Rehder, Bignonia unguis-cati L.)
Cat's Claw Creeper

A preparation from this species has been used to treat manchineel (Hippomane mancinella L., fam. Euphorbiaceae) dermatitis (Standley 1926, Lewis & Elvin-Lewis 1977).



Mansoa alliacea A.H. Gentry
(syn. Bignonia alliacea Lam., Pachyptera alliacea A.H. Gentry, Pseudocalymma alliaceum Sandw.)
Garlic Vine

Two workmen who trimmed a massive specimen of Pseudocalymma alliaceum were overcome by volatile emanations which induced coughing, gagging and severe facial burning and swelling (Morton 1969, 1971).

The plant smells of garlic (Allium sativum L., fam. Alliaceae) (Sandwith 1953), as is suggested by the common name.



Markhamia stipulata Seemann
(syn. Dolichandrone stipulata Benth. & Hook. f.)

Joshi et al. (1978) isolated lapachol, a known elicitor of contact dermatitis (Schulz et al. 1977), from the stem heartwood of this species.



Newbouldia laevis Seemann

This African species has been reported to provide nesting sites for ants (Bequaert 1922). If handled when growing in its natural habitat, this species may present a dermatological hazard. A review of this topic is provided by Schmidt (1985).



Paratecoma peroba Kuhlm.
(syns Tecoma peroba Rec., Paratecoma alba — of no botanical standing)
White Peroba, Peroba da Campos, Peroba Amarella, Peroba Branca

The single species in this genus is a native of Brazil. Its valuable timber is exported to Europe in small quantities (Hausen 1981). The timber is superficially similar to that of certain Aspidosperma Mart. & Zucc. species (fam. Apocynaceae), and this is reflected in the common names.

Early accounts of dermatitis from this species were presented by Touraine et al. (1932) and Touraine & Golé (1934). Barnett (1948) described extensive dermatitis caused by the sawdust involving the hands, face, neck, and sometimes the axillae and groin. De Jong et al. (1951) found 5 from 25 workers affected, with genital involvement in two of the cases. Dermatitis relapsed when the patients entered the shed where the timber was stored, implicating an airborne volatile allergen. The sawdust also causes asthma and conjunctivitis (Orsler 1969, Orsler 1973, Zschunke 1963). The wood is among the six most commonly causing dermatitis in France (Zafiropoulo et al. 1968).

De Jong et al. (1951) isolated lapachol and lapachonone (lapachenole) from the timber. In their patients with dermatitis, patch tests incriminated lapachenole as the sensitiser; lapachol was present in only small amounts. Livingstone & Whiting (1955) reported the isolation and structure elucidation of lapachenole from Paratecoma alba. Sandermann & Barghoorn (1955) showed lapachenole to be present in the wood and this was confirmed by Sandermann & Dietrichs (1957) and later by Burnett & Thomson (1968) who found that lapachenole was a major constituent whilst lapachol occurred only in small amounts. Several potentially allergenic quinones are also present in the wood (Sandermann et al. 1968).

Lapachenole has been shown to be both irritant and sensitising by Sandermann & Barghoorn (1955). Schulz et al. (1977) have confirmed the high sensitising capacity of this compound on guinea pigs. Lapachol was found not to be a sensitiser, but to function as an elicitor in deoxylapachol sensitised subjects.



Parmentiera edulis DC.

This tree, which is often planted in Central America for its edible fruit, has branches armed with short stout incurved spines (Standley 1927).



Phyllarthron comorense DC.

The roots, heartwood, and stem bark of this species contain lapachol (Joshi et al. 1973a, 1975, 1976), a known elicitor of contact dermatitis (Schulz et al. 1977). The roots and heartwood were also found to contain sesamin, which has been shown to be involved in sesame oil contact allergy (see Sesamum indicum L., fam. Pedaliaceae).



Stereospermum dentatum A. Rich.

This African species has been reported to provide nesting sites for ants (Bequaert 1922). If handled when growing in its natural habitat, this species may present a dermatological hazard. A review of this topic is provided by Schmidt (1985).



Stereospermum suaveolens DC.

Both the timber (Sandermann & Dietrichs 1957) and the root heartwood (Joshi et al. 1977a) of this species have been found to contain lapachol, a known elicitor of contact dermatitis (Schulz et al. 1977).



Stereospermum tetragonum DC.

Purushothaman & Natarajan (1974) isolated lapachol from the roots of this species. Lapachol is a known elicitor of contact dermatitis (Schulz et al. 1977).




Richard J. Schmidt [Valid HTML 4.01!]



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