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   Index



 

ACANTHACEAE

(Acanthus or Ruellia family)

 

• Medicinal / Folk-medicinal aspects: Some species provide useful topical antifungal activity; others reportedly provide healing activity when applied to boils or infected wounds. •
• Adverse effects: Many species, especially those in the genera Acanthus L., Anthacanthus Nees, and Barleria L. are thorny and hence capable of inflicting mechanical injury. Other species have been reported to produce contact dermatitis but the causative agents remain unidentified. •
• Veterinary aspects: •

This is a large family comprising, according to Mabberley (2008), 3175 species in 212 genera. It is closely allied to the Scrophulariaceae. Members are found mostly in the tropics, but occur also in the United States, the Mediterranean region, and in Australia.

On the basis of phylogenetic evidence, plants formerly classified in the Avicenniaceae are now placed in the Acanthaceae (Angiosperm Phylogeny Group 2003). The 4–7 species in the single genus Avicennia L. are found on tropical coasts as constituents of mangrove vegetation (Mabberley 2008). Earlier classifications have included these plants in the Verbenaceae. The timber from all species is practically identical and has been investigated as a source of paper pulp (Record & Hess 1943, Watt & Breyer-Brandwijk 1962).

Some members of the genera Acanthus L., Aphelandra R. Br., Barleria L., Crossandra Salisb., Eranthemum L., Fittonia Coëm., Justicia L., Strobilanthes Blume, and Thunbergia Retz. are grown as houseplants or as garden ornamentals.



Acanthus ebracteatus Vahl
(syn. Dilivaria ebracteata Pers.)
Holly Mangrove, Sea Holly

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Andrographis paniculata Wall. ex Nees
(syns Justicia paniculata Burm. f., Justicia veracruzana T.F. Daniel)
Green Chiretta, Green Chireyta

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Anthacanthus spinosus Nees
(syn. Oplonia spinosa Raf.)
Catch and Keep

This spiny species can cause mechanical injury (Oakes & Butcher 1962).



Aphelandra squarrosa Nees
Saffron-Spike, Zebra Plant

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Asystasia schimperi T. Anderson

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Avicennia germinans L.
(syns Avicennia africana P. Beauv., Avicennia germinans Stearn, Avicennia nitida Jacq., Avicennia tomentosa Jacq., Bontia germinans L.)
Black Mangrove, Black-Wood, White Mangrove, Olive Mangrove, Palétuvier Blanc

According to Bournot (1913), the heartwood of Avicennia tomentosa Jacq. yields lapachol, a known elicitor of contact dermatitis (Schulz et al. 1977), which is also present in Tectona grandis L. f. (fam. Labiatae) and other species of timber trees, particularly those in the family Bignoniaceae.

The sapwood of Avicennia tomentosa Jacq. has been used in Java as a contraceptive (Quisumbing 1951).

[Further information available but not yet included in database]



Avicennia marina Vierhapper
(syns Sceura marina Forsskal, Avicennia officinalis L.)
Grey Mangrove, White Mangrove

This is the only species of Avicennia L. that occurs along tropical coastlines of the American continents and the West Indies. Record & Hess (1943) state that the yellowish powder contained in the heartwood is lapachol (see Avicennia germinans L. above).



Barleria cristata L.
(syns Barleria ciliata Roxb., Barleria dichotoma Roxb., Barleria napalensis Wall.)
Blue Bell, Bluebell Barleria, Crested Philippine Violet

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Barleria lupulina Lindl.
Philippine Violet, Hophead

This species bears sharp spines at its leaf bases (Waterhouse et al. 2003), which may cause mechanical injury (Oakes & Butcher 1962).



Barleria mucronata Lindau

Watt & Breyer-Brandwijk (1962) record that the Masai use the thorns to prick the skin around a snake bite in order to permit the sucking out or pressing out of blood.



Barleria prionitis L.
(syn. Barleria coriacea Oberm.)
Barleria, Porcupine Flower

This prickly shrub has been used as a hedge plant, but is regarded as a serious environmental weed in Australia. The bases to the leaves are protected by three to five sharp, pale-coloured spines, each about 15 mm in length (Waterhouse et al. 2003).

According to Nadkarni (1976), the juice of this plant is used in Indian traditional medicine as an application to the feet in the rainy season in order to prevent cracks and lacerations; a paste of the root is applied to boils and glandular swellings; and a medicated oil prepared from this plant is applied to unhealthy wounds.

[Further information available but not yet included in database]



Barleria rigida Nees
(syn. Barleria irritans Nees var rigida C.B. Clarke)
Scorpion Thistle

Both the common name and the specific epithet irritans suggest that the plant has irritant properties.



Blepharis capensis Pers.

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Blepharis stainbankiae C.B. Clarke

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Brillantaisia lamium Benth.
(syns Brillantaisia eminii Lindau, Leucorhaphis lamium Nees)

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Dicliptera chinensis Nees
(syns Diapedium chinense K.D. Koenig, Justicia chinensis L.)
Chinese Foldwing

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Dicliptera hensii Lindau
(syn. Peristrophe hensii C.B. Clarke)
False Buckwheat

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Eranthemum viscidum Blume

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Graptophyllum pictum Griffith
(syns Graptophyllum hortense Nees, Justicia picta L.)
Caricature Plant, Jamaican Croton

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Hygrophila R. Br.

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Hygrophila auriculata Heine
(syns Asteracantha longifolia Nees, Barleria auriculata Schumach., Barleria longifolia L., Hygrophila spinosa T. Anderson)
Hygrophila, Long-Leaved Barleria, Marsh Barbel

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Hygrophila quadrivalvis Nees
(syns Hygrophila obovata Wight, Ruellia quadrivalvis Buch.-Ham.)

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Hypoestes aristata Sol. ex Roem. & Schult. var aristata
(syns Hypoestes antennifera S. Moore, Hypoestes barteri T. Anderson, Hypoestes insularis T. Anderson, Hypoestes staudtii Lindau, Justicia aristata Vahl)
Buckwheat, Ribbon Bush

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Justicia adhatoda L.
(syns Adhatoda zeylanica Medikus, Adhatoda vasica Nees)
Malabar Nut

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Justicia baronii V.A.W. Graham
(syns Adhatoda robusta C.B. Clarke, Duvernoia robusta Lindau)

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Justicia calycina V.W. Graham
(syns Beloperone calycina Nees, Dianthera calycina Benth. ex B.D. Jacks., Justicia acuminatissima Bremek., Rhacodiscus calycinus Bremek., Rhacodiscus intermedius Bremek.)

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Justicia diffusa Willd.
(syns Justicia procumbens L., Rostellaria diffusa Nees, Rostellaria procumbens Nees, Rostellularia procumbens Nees)

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Justicia euosmia Lindau

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Justicia extensa T. Anderson
(syns Duvernoia extensa Lindau, Duvernoia stuhlmannii Lindau, Ecbolium extensum Kuntze, Justicia laxa T. Anderson, Justicia talbotii S. Moore, Justicia thyrsiflora S. Moore)
Camouflage Plant, Silverspot Justicia

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Justicia gendarussa Burm. f.
(syn. Gendarussa vulgaris Nees)

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Justicia glabra K.D. Koenig ex Roxb.

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Justicia latibracteata De Wild.
(syns Adhatoda buchholzii S. Moore, Adhatoda latibracteata Benoist, Adhatoda maculata C.B. Clarke, Duvernoia buchholzii Lindau)

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Justicia pectoralis Bremek.
(syns Dianthera pectoralis J. Gmelin, Ecbolium pectorale Kuntze, Psacadocalymma pectorale Bremek., Rhytiglossa pectoralis Nees, Stethoma pectoralis Raf.)

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Justicia simplex D. Don

Sesamin, sesamolin, and the structurally similar simplexolin have been isolated from an extract of the whole plant (Ghosal et al. 1979). Sesamin and sesamolin have been shown to elicit dermatitis in persons with contact sensitivity to sesame seed oil (see Sesamum indicum L., fam. Pedaliaceae).

[Sesamin; Sesamolin]



Justicia striata Bullock
(syn. Adhatoda striata Klotzsch)

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Justicia tranquebariensis L. f.

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Justicia tristis T. Anderson
(syn. Adhatoda tristis Nees)

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Lepidagathis formosensis C.B. Clarke ex Hayata

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Lepidagathis incurva Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don
(syn. Lepidagathis hyalina Nees)
Curved Lepidagathis

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Mackenziea integrifolia Bremek.
(syns Strobilanthes integrifolia Kuntze, Strobilanthes perfoliatus T. Anderson, Endopogon integrifolius Bremek.)
Strobilanthes, Cone Head

This species, which grows in India, may cause painful itching, swelling, and blistering when handled (Behl & Captain 1979).



Mendoncia hoffmannseggiana Nees
(syns Mendoncia pubescens Hoffmanns., Mendoncia schomburgkiana Nees, Mendozia pubescens Hoffmanns. ex Nees)

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Neuracanthus sphaerostachys Dalzell
(syn. Lepidagathis sphaerostachya Nees)

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Pseuderanthemum bicolor Radlk.
(syn. Eranthemum bicolor Schrank)

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Rhinacanthus nasutus Kuntze
(syns Justicia nasuta L., Pseuderanthemum connatum Lindau, Rhinacanthus communis Nees, Rhinacanthus osmospermus Bojer ex Nees)
Ringworm Root, Snake Jasmine

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Ruellia hygrophila Mart.
(syns Cryphiacanthus udus Nees, Lychniothyrsus hygrophilus Bremek.)
Reventador

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Streptosiphon hirsutus Mildbr.

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Strobilanthes acrocephalus T. Anderson

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Strobilanthes callosus Nees
(syn. Carvia callosa Bremek.)
Karvi, Karvy

This species, which grows in India, may cause painful itching, swelling, and blistering when handled (Behl & Captain 1979).

[Further information available but not yet included in database]



Strobilanthes cusia Kuntze
(syns Baphicacanthus cusia Bremek., Goldfussia cusia Nees, Ruellia indigofera Griff., Strobilanthes flaccidifolius Nees, etc.)

Fresh juice from the leaves is used on Okinawa Island, Japan as a popular remedy for athlete's foot. The active principle was found to be an alkaloid-like compound named tryptanthrin (Honda & Tabata 1979).

[Tryptanthrin]



Strobilanthes scaber Nees

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Thelepaepale ixiocephalus Bremek.
(syn. Strobilanthes ixiocephalus Benth.)
Waiti

This species, which grows in India, may cause painful itching, swelling, and blistering when handled (Behl & Captain 1979).



Thunbergia alata Bojer ex Sims
(syns Thunbergia erecta T. Anderson, Thunbergia grandiflora Roxb.)
Black-Eyed Susan, Suzanne aux Yeux Noirs, Schwarzäugige Susanne

[Information available but not yet included in database]



Thunbergia laurifolia Lindl.
(syn. Thunbergia grandiflora Roxb. var laurifolia Benoist)
Blue Trumpet Vine, Laurel-Leaved Thunbergia, Purple Allamanda

[Information available but not yet included in database]


References

  • Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2003) An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG II. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 141(4): 399-436 [doi] [url] [url-2]
  • Behl PN, Captain RM (1979) Skin-Irritant and Sensitizing Plants Found in India, 2nd edn. New Delhi: S Chand
  • Bournot K (1913) Gewinnung von Lapachol aus dem Kernholz von Avicennia tomentosa. [Separation of lapachol from the heartwood of Avicennia tomentosa]. Archiv der Pharmazie (und Berichte der Deutschen Pharmazeutischen Gesellschaft) 251(5): 351-354
  • Ghosal S, Banerjee S, Srivastava RS (1979) Simplexolin, a new lignan from Justicia simplex. Phytochemistry 18(3): 503-505
  • Honda G, Tabata M (1979) Isolation of antifungal principle tryptanthrin, from Strobilanthes cusia O. Kuntze. Planta Medica — Journal of Medicinal Plant Research 36(1): 85-86
  • Mabberley DJ (2008) Mabberley's Plant-Book. A portable dictionary of plants, their classification and uses, 3rd edn. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
  • Nadkarni AK (1976) Dr. K. M. Nadkarni's Indian Materia Medica. With ayurvedic, unani-tibbi, siddha, allopathic, homeopathic, naturopathic & home remedies, appendices & indexes, Revised enlarged and reprinted 3rd edn, Vols 1 & 2. Bombay: Popular Prakashan [WorldCat] [url]
  • Oakes AJ, Butcher JO (1962) Poisonous and Injurious Plants of the U.S. Virgin Islands. Miscellaneous Publication No. 882. Washington, DC: Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture
  • Quisumbing E (1951) Medicinal Plants of the Philippines. Technical Bulletin 16, Philippines Department of Agriculture and Natural Resources. Manila, Philippine Islands: Manila Bureau of Printing
  • Record SJ, Hess RW (1943) Timbers of the New World. New Haven: Yale University Press
  • Schulz KH, Garbe I, Hausen BM, Simatupang MH (1977) The sensitizing capacity of naturally occurring quinones. — Experimental studies in guinea pigs. I. Naphthoquinones and related compounds. Archives of Dermatological Research 258(1): 41-52
  • Waterhouse B, Mitchell A, Wilson C, Wilson N, James P, Crothers M, Morrow B, Thorp J (2003) Weed Management Guide. Barleria or porcupine flower - Barleria prionitis. Adelaide: CRC for Australian Weed Management
  • Watt JM, Breyer-Brandwijk MG (1962) The Medicinal and Poisonous Plants of Southern and Eastern Africa. Being an account of their medicinal and other uses, chemical composition, pharmacological effects and toxicology in man and animal, 2nd edn. Edinburgh: E & S Livingstone [WorldCat] [url]
  • [ + 21 further references not yet included in database]



Richard J. Schmidt [Valid HTML 4.01!]



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